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      Transconjugation of erm(X) conferring high-level resistance of clindamycin for Cutibacterium acnes

      1 , 1 , 2 , 1

      Journal of Medical Microbiology

      Microbiology Society

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          Most cited references 20

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          European evidence-based (S3) guidelines for the treatment of acne.

           A Nast,  B. Dreno,  V Bettoli (2012)
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            Quantitation of major human cutaneous bacterial and fungal populations.

            Because the human skin microbiota may play roles in the causation or modification of skin diseases, we sought to provide initial quantitative analysis from different cutaneous locations. We developed quantitative PCRs to enumerate the total bacterial and fungal populations, as well as the most common bacterial and fungal genera present in six locales, in eight healthy subjects. We used a set of primers and TaqMan MGB probes based on the bacterial 16S rRNA and fungal internally transcribed spacer region, as well as bacterial genus-specific probes for Propionibacterium, Corynebacterium, Streptococcus, and Staphylococcus and a fungal genus-specific probe for Malassezia. The extent of human DNA contamination of the specimen was determined by quantitating the human housekeeping GAPDH gene. The highest level of 16S rRNA copies of bacteria was present in the axilla (4.44 ± 0.18 log(10) copies/μl [mean ± standard error of the mean]), with normalization based on GAPDH levels, but the other five locations were similar to one another (range, 2.48 to 2.89 log(10) copies/μl). There was strong symmetry between the left and right sides. The four bacterial genera accounted for 31% to 59% of total bacteria, with the highest percent composition in the axilla and the lowest in the forearm. Streptococcus was the most common genus present on the forehead and behind the ear. Corynebacterium spp. were predominant in the axilla. Fungal levels were 1 to 2 log(10) lower than for bacteria, with Malassezia spp. accounting for the majority of fungal gene copies. These results provide the first quantitation of the site and host specificities of major bacterial and fungal populations in human skin and present simple methods for their assessment in studies of disease.
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              Antibiotic-resistant acne: lessons from Europe.

              Propionibacterium acnes and P. granulosum are widely regarded as the aetiological agents of inflammatory acne. Their proliferation and metabolism are controlled using lengthy courses of oral and/or topical antibiotics. Despite numerous reports of skin colonization by antibiotic-resistant propionibacteria among acne patients, accurate prevalence data are available only for the U.K. To determine the prevalence of skin colonization by antibiotic-resistant propionibacteria among acne patients and their contacts from six European centres. Skin swabs were collected from 664 acne patients attending centres in the U.K., Spain, Italy, Greece, Sweden and Hungary. Phenotypes of antibiotic-resistant propionibacteria were determined by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of a panel of tetracycline and macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B (MLS) antibiotics. Resistance determinants were characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers specific for rRNA genes and erm(X), followed by nucleotide sequencing of the amplified DNA. Viable propionibacteria were recovered from 622 patients. A total of 515 representative antibiotic-resistant isolates and 71 susceptible isolates to act as control strains were characterized phenotypically. The prevalence of carriage of isolates resistant to at least one antibiotic was lowest in Hungary (51%) and highest in Spain (94%). Combined resistance to clindamycin and erythromycin was much more common (highest prevalence 91% in Spain) than resistance to the tetracyclines (highest prevalence 26.4% in the U.K.). No isolates resistant to tetracycline were detected in Italy, or in Hungary. Overall, there were strong correlations with prescribing patterns. Prevalence of resistant propionibacteria on the skin of untreated contacts of the patients varied from 41% in Hungary to 86% in Spain. Of the dermatologists, 25 of 39 were colonized with resistant propionibacteria, including all those who specialized in treating acne. None of 27 physicians working in other outpatient departments harboured resistant propionibacteria. The widespread use of topical formulations of erythromycin and clindamycin to treat acne has resulted in significant dissemination of cross-resistant strains of propionibacteria. Resistance rates to the orally administered tetracycline group of antibiotics were low, except in Sweden and the U.K. Resistant genotypes originally identified in the U.K. are distributed widely throughout Europe. Antibiotic-resistant propionibacteria should be considered transmissible between acne-prone individuals, and dermatologists should use stricter cross-infection control measures when assessing acne in the clinic.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Medical Microbiology
                Microbiology Society
                0022-2615
                1473-5644
                January 01 2019
                January 01 2019
                : 68
                : 1
                : 26-30
                Affiliations
                [1 ] 1​Department of Microbiology, School of Pharmacy, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, 1432-1 Horinouchi, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0392, Japan
                [2 ] 2​Department of Dermatology, Toranomon Hospital, 2-2-2 Toranomon, minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8470, Japan
                Article
                10.1099/jmm.0.000875
                © 2019

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