22
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of hydro-alcoholic extract of Lavandula officinalis in mice: possible involvement of the cyclooxygenase type 1 and 2 enzymes

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Abstract Lavandula officinalis Chaix, Lamiaceae, extracts can inhibit inflammation and also pain induced by formalin in mice. This study evaluated the effects of L. officinalis hydro-alcoholic extract on pain induced by formalin and also cyclooxygenase (COX) type 1 and 2 activity in mice. To evaluate probable analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of the extract, flowers were prepared by maceration and extraction in alcohol and their analgesic effects were studied in male mice, using formalin and hot plate tests. The effect of intraperitoneal hydro-alcoholic extracts of L. officinalis (100, 200, 250, 300, 400 and 800 mg/kg), subcutaneous morphine (10 mg/kg), dexamethasone (10 mg/kg; i.p.) and indomethacin (10 mg/kg; i.p.) on formalin induced pain were studied. Our results indicated that administration of the extract (100, 200, 250, 300, 400 and 800 mg/kg; i.p.) has inhibitory effects on inflammation induced by formalin injection into the animals hind paw. Moreover, this inhibitory effect was equal to the effects of morphine, dexamethasone and indomethacin. The extract in100, 200 and 300 mg/kg; significantly reduced heat-induced pain. The extract also reduced COX activity in dose dependent manner, where the inhibitory effect on COX1 activity was 33% and on COX2 activity was 45%. Here for the first time we show that L. officinialis extract can modulate pain and inflammation induced by formalin by inhibition of COX enzymes.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 19

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Cyclooxygenase isozymes: the biology of prostaglandin synthesis and inhibition.

          Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) represent one of the most highly utilized classes of pharmaceutical agents in medicine. All NSAIDs act through inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis, a catalytic activity possessed by two distinct cyclooxygenase (COX) isozymes encoded by separate genes. The discovery of COX-2 launched a new era in NSAID pharmacology, resulting in the synthesis, marketing, and widespread use of COX-2 selective drugs. These pharmaceutical agents have quickly become established as important therapeutic medications with potentially fewer side effects than traditional NSAIDs. Additionally, characterization of the two COX isozymes is allowing the discrimination of the roles each play in physiological processes such as homeostatic maintenance of the gastrointestinal tract, renal function, blood clotting, embryonic implantation, parturition, pain, and fever. Of particular importance has been the investigation of COX-1 and -2 isozymic functions in cancer, dysregulation of inflammation, and Alzheimer's disease. More recently, additional heterogeneity in COX-related proteins has been described, with the finding of variants of COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. These variants may function in tissue-specific physiological and pathophysiological processes and may represent important new targets for drug therapy.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            The formalin test in mice: dissociation between inflammatory and non-inflammatory pain.

            The formalin test in mice is a valid and reliable model of nociception and is sensitive for various classes of analgesic drugs. The noxious stimulus is an injection of dilute formalin (1% in saline) under the skin of the dorsal surface of the right hindpaw. The response is the amount of time the animals spend licking the injected paw. Two distinct periods of high licking activity can be identified, an early phase lasting the first 5 min and a late phase lasting from 20 to 30 min after the injection of formalin. In order to elucidate the involvement of inflammatory processes in the two phases, we tested different classes of drugs in the two phases independently. Morphine, codeine, nefopam, and orphenadrine, as examples of centrally acting analgesics, were antinociceptive in both phases. In contrast, the non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs indomethacin and naproxen and the steroids dexamethasone and hydrocortisone inhibited only the late phase, while acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and paracetamol were antinociceptive in both phases. The results demonstrate that the two phases in the formalin test may have different nociceptive mechanisms. It is suggested that the early phase is due to a direct effect on nociceptors and that prostaglandins do not play an important role during this phase. The late phase seems to be an inflammatory response with inflammatory pain that can be inhibited by anti-inflammatory drugs. ASA and paracetamol seem to have actions independent of their inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis and they also have effects on non-inflammatory pain.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              The formalin test: a quantitative study of the analgesic effects of morphine, meperidine, and brain stem stimulation in rats and cats.

              A method for assessing pain and analgesia in rats and cats is described. The procedure involves subcutaneous injection of dilute formalin into the forepaw, after which the animal's responses are rated according to objective behavioral criteria. The formalin test is a statistically valid technique which has two advantages over other pain tests: (1) little or no restraint is necessary, permitting unhindered observation of the complete range of behavioral responses; and (2) the pain stimulus is continuous rather than transient, thus bearing greater resemblance to most clinical pain. The analgesic effects of morphine, meperidine, and stimulation of the periaqueductal grey matter are evaluated using this test.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rbfar
                Revista Brasileira de Farmacognosia
                Rev. bras. farmacogn.
                Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia (Curitiba )
                1981-528X
                February 2016
                : 26
                : 1
                : 102-108
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences Iran
                [2 ] AZAD Islamic University, Tehran North Branch Iran
                [3 ] Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences Iran
                [4 ] Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences Iran
                Article
                S0102-695X2016000100102
                10.1016/j.bjp.2015.10.003
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                PHARMACOLOGY & PHARMACY

                Comments

                Comment on this article