The transforming growth factor beta (TGF- β) family forms a group of three isoforms, TGF- β1, TGF- β2, and TGF- β3, with their structure formed by interrelated dimeric polypeptide chains. Pleiotropic and redundant functions of the TGF- β family concern control of numerous aspects and effects of cell functions, including proliferation, differentiation, and migration, in all tissues of the human body. Amongst many cytokines and growth factors, the TGF- β family is considered a group playing one of numerous key roles in control of physiological phenomena concerning maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in the bone tissue. By breaking the continuity of bone tissue, a spread-over-time and complex bone healing process is initiated, considered a recapitulation of embryonic intracartilaginous ossification. This process is a cascade of local and systemic phenomena spread over time, involving whole cell lineages and various cytokines and growth factors. Numerous in vivo and in vitro studies in various models analysing cytokines and growth factors' involvement have shown that TGF- β has a leading role in the fracture healing process. This paper sums up current knowledge on the basis of available literature concerning the role of the TGF- β family in the fracture healing process.