+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Adherence to GOLD guideline treatment recommendations among pulmonologists in Turkey

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          Low adherence to Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guideline recommendations has been reported worldwide. There has been no study on the adherence to GOLD guidelines for COPD treatment in Turkey.


          To investigate the rates of adherence to GOLD 2010 guidelines for COPD treatment among pulmonologists.


          A multi-center, cross-sectional, observational study was carried out in eleven pulmonary outpatient clinics across Turkey. Adherence to GOLD was evaluated through hospital records. Demographic and clinical data were recorded.


          Study included 719 patients (mean age: 62.9±9.7 years; males 85.4%) of whom 16 was classified as GOLD Stage I, 238 as II, 346 as III, and 119 as IV, and only 59.5% received appropriate treatment. Rates of guideline adherence varied across GOLD stages (I, 6.3%; II, 14.7%; III, 84.4%; and IV, 84%). Causes of inappropriate therapies were overtreatment (Stage I, 100% and Stage II, 91.1%), undertreatment (Stage III, 3.3% and Stage IV, 10.9%) and lack of treatment (Stage II, 3.8%; Stage III, 2.3%; and Stage IV, 5.9%). The most preferred regimen (43.4%) was long-acting β2-agonist-inhaled corticosteroid-long-acting muscarinic antagonist. Overall, 614 patients (89%) received treatment containing inhaled corticosteroid.


          Pulmonologists in Turkey have low rates of adherence to GOLD guidelines in COPD treatment. Inappropriateness of therapies was due to overtreatment in early stages and excessive use of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) in all disease stages.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 16

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          A long-term evaluation of once-daily inhaled tiotropium in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

          Currently available inhaled bronchodilators used as therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) necessitate multiple daily dosing. The present study evaluates the long-term safety and efficacy of tiotropium, a new once-daily anticholinergic in COPD. Patients with stable COPD (age 65.2+/-8.7 yrs (mean+/-SD), n=921) were enrolled in two identical randomized double-blind placebo-controlled 1-yr studies. Patients inhaled tiotropium 18 microg or placebo (mean screening forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 1.01 versus 0.99 L, 39.1 and 38.1% of the predicted value) once daily as a dry powder. The primary spirometric outcome was trough FEV1 (i.e. FEV1 prior to dosing). Changes in dyspnoea were measured using the Transition Dyspnea Index, and health status with the disease-specific St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire and the generic Short Form 36. Medication use and adverse events were recorded. Tiotropium provided significantly superior bronchodilation relative to placebo for trough FEV1 response (approximately 12% over baseline) (p<0.01) and mean response during the 3 h following dosing (approximately 22% over baseline) (p<0.001) over the 12-month period. Tiotropium recipients showed less dyspnoea (p<0.001), superior health status scores, and fewer COPD exacerbations and hospitalizations (p<0.05). Adverse events were comparable with placebo, except for dry mouth incidence (tiotropium 16.0% versus placebo 2.7%, p<0.05). Tiotropium is an effective, once-daily bronchodilator that reduces dyspnoea and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbation frequency and improves health status. This suggests that tiotropium will make an important contribution to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease therapy.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            How far is real life from COPD therapy guidelines? An Italian observational study.

            According to the GOLD international guidelines, the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) should be proportional to the severity of airflow obstruction graded according to FEV(1)% predicted. Regular treatment with long-acting bronchodilators should be prescribed for symptomatic patients with FEV(1) < 80%. Inhaled corticosteroids should be added in patients with FEV(1) < 50% predicted and frequent exacerbations. To investigate whether pulmonologists follow the GOLD guidelines when prescribing treatment for COPD. A multicenter, cross-sectional, observational study was carried out in 49 Pulmonary Units evenly distributed throughout the country. For each patient the demographic, clinical data and the current therapies were registered in an electronic database. 4094 patients (mean age: 70.9 ± 9.4; males 72.4%, female 27.6%) were enrolled. Disease severity was classified as: mild (745), moderate (1722), severe (923), very severe (704). Irrespective of disease severity, inhaled corticosteroids alone or in combination with long-acting bronchodilators were used in 15.2% and 66.8% of patients, respectively. The appropriateness of the pharmacological treatment of the COPD patients was defined in accordance with the GOLD recommendations. The treatment was appropriate in 37.9% of patients and inappropriate in 62.1%, p < 0.0001. The inappropriateness was due to under-prescription in 7.2% and to over-prescription in 54.9% of patients. The presence and the number of exacerbations represented an important trigger for over-prescription at stages I and II. This study shows that there is a poor relationship between the recommendations of the GOLD international guidelines and current clinical practice, and that exacerbations may play a role in over-prescription. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Mortality prediction in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease comparing the GOLD 2007 and 2011 staging systems: a pooled analysis of individual patient data.

              There is no universal consensus on the best staging system for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although documents (eg, the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] 2007) have traditionally used forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) for staging, clinical parameters have been added to some guidelines (eg, GOLD 2011) to improve patient management. As part of the COPD Cohorts Collaborative International Assessment (3CIA) initiative, we aimed to investigate how individual patients were categorised by GOLD 2007 and 2011, and compare the prognostic accuracy of the staging documents for mortality.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                10 December 2015
                : 10
                : 2657-2663
                [1 ]Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Ankara University School of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey
                [2 ]Pulmonary Diseases Department, Izmir Dr Suat Seren Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey
                [3 ]Pulmonary Diseases Department, Istanbul Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
                [4 ]Pulmonary Diseases Department, Adana Prof Dr Nusret Karasu Pulmonary Diseases Hospital, Adana, Turkey
                [5 ]Pulmonary Diseases Department, Yedikule Pulmonary Diseases and Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
                [6 ]Pulmonary Diseases Department, Nihat Kitapçı Pulmonary Diseases and Surgery Hospital, Erzurum, Turkey
                [7 ]Pulmonary Diseases Department, Atatürk Pulmonary Diseases and Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
                [8 ]Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Dicle University School of Medicine, Diyarbakir, Turkey
                [9 ]Pulmonary Diseases Department, Uskudar State Hospital, Istanbul, Istanbul, Turkey
                [10 ]Pulmonary Diseases Department, Samsun Pulmonary Diseases and Thoracic Surgery Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey
                [11 ]Pulmonary Diseases Department, Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Istanbul, Turkey
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Elif Sen, Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Ankara University School of Medicine, Mamak Caddesi 12/A, Cebeci, Ankara, 06100, Turkey, Tel +90 532 452 7660, Fax +90 312 310 6370, Email esen@
                © 2015 Sen et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research


                Comment on this article