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      Molecular Pathology of Renal Chloride Channels in Dent’s Disease andBartter’ s Syndrome

      Cardiorenal Medicine

      S. Karger AG

      Chloride channel gene, Hypercalciuria, Low molecular weight proteinuria, Kidney stones

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          Abstract

          Recent advances in molecular biology have characterised a new class of chloride channels that are referred to as voltage-gated chloride channels (CLCs). To date 9 such CLCs (CLC-1 to CLC-7, CLC-Ka and CLC-Kb which are respectively encoded by the genes CLCN1 to CLCN7, CLCNKa and CLCNKb) have been identified in mammals. Mutations in 2 of these, referred to as CLC-5 and CLC-Kb, have been defined in the hypercalciuric nephrolithiasis disorders of Dent’s disease and a form of Bartter’s syndrome, respectively. In addition, other forms of Bartter’s syndrome have been defined with mutations involving the bumetanide-sensitive sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter (NKCC2) and the potassium channel ROMK. Finally, mutations of the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride co-transporter (NCCT) are associated with Gitelman’s syndrome, in which hypocalciuria and hypomagnesaemia are notable features. These molecular genetic studies have increased our understanding of the renal tubular mechanisms that regulate mineral homeostasis.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Bartter's syndrome, hypokalaemic alkalosis with hypercalciuria, is caused by mutations in the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC2.

          Inherited hypokalaemic alkalosis with low blood pressure can be divided into two groups-Gitelman's syndrome, featuring hypocalciuria, hypomagnesaemia and milder clinical manifestations, and Bartter's syndrome, featuring hypercalciuria and early presentation with severe volume depletion. Mutations in the renal Na-Cl cotransporter have been shown to cause Gitelman's syndrome. We demonstrate linkage of Bartter's syndrome to the renal Na-K-2Cl cotransporter gene NKCC2, and identify frameshift or non-conservative missense mutations for this gene that co-segregate with the disease. These findings demonstrate the molecular basis of Bartter's syndrome, provide the basis for molecular classification of patients with inherited hypokalaemic alkalosis, and suggest potential phenotypes in heterozygous carriers of NKCC2 mutations.
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            Genetic heterogeneity of Bartter's syndrome revealed by mutations in the K+ channel, ROMK.

            Mutations in the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2), a mediator of renal salt reabsorption, cause Bartter's syndrome, featuring salt wasting, hypokalaemic alkalosis, hypercalciuria and low blood pressure. NKCC2 mutations can be excluded in some Bartter's kindreds, prompting examination of regulators of cotransporter activity. One regulator is believed to be ROMK, an ATP-sensitive K+ channel that 'recycles' reabsorbed K+ back to the tubule lumen. Examination of the ROMK gene reveals mutations that co-segregate with the disease and disrupt ROMK function in four Bartter's kindreds. Our findings establish the genetic heterogeneity of Bartter's syndrome, and demonstrate the physiologic role of ROMK in vivo.
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              Sequence and functional expression of the GABA A receptor shows a ligand-gated receptor super-family.

              Amino-acid sequences derived from complementary DNAs encoding the alpha- and beta-subunits of the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor from bovine brain show homology with other ligand-gated receptor subunits, suggesting that there is a super-family of ion-channel-containing receptors. Co-expression of the in vitro-generated alpha-subunit and beta-subunit RNAs in Xenopus oocytes produces a functional receptor and ion channel with the pharmacological properties characteristic of the GABAA receptor.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                EXN
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-7143-2
                978-3-318-00633-9
                1660-2129
                2000
                December 2000
                15 September 2000
                : 8
                : 6
                : 351-360
                Affiliations
                Molecular Endocrinology Group, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headington, Oxford, Oxon, UK
                Article
                20689 Exp Nephrol 2000;8:351–360
                10.1159/000020689
                11014932
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 59, Pages: 10
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/20689
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