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      Microbiota: a key orchestrator of cancer therapy

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      Nature Reviews Cancer
      Springer Nature

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          Abstract

          The human microbiota influences a whole range of physiological functions. In this Review, Roy and Trinchieri discuss our current understanding of how the gut microbiota modulates responses to cancer therapy as well as mediating susceptibility to toxic side effects.

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          Most cited references125

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          Cancer immunotherapy: moving beyond current vaccines.

          Great progress has been made in the field of tumor immunology in the past decade, but optimism about the clinical application of currently available cancer vaccine approaches is based more on surrogate endpoints than on clinical tumor regression. In our cancer vaccine trials of 440 patients, the objective response rate was low (2.6%), and comparable to the results obtained by others. We consider here results in cancer vaccine trials and highlight alternate strategies that mediate cancer regression in preclinical and clinical models.
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            Generation of Pathogenic Th17 Cells in the Absence of TGF-β Signaling

            CD4+ T cells that selectively produce interleukin (IL)-17, are critical for host defense and autoimmunity 1–4 . Crucial for T helper17 (Th17) cells in vivo 5,6 , IL-23 has been thought to be incapable of driving initial differentiation. Rather, IL-6 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 have been argued to be the factors responsible for initiating specification 7–10 . Herein, we show that Th17 differentiation can occur in the absence of TGF-β signaling. Neither IL-6 nor IL-23 alone efficiently generated Th17 cells; however, these cytokines in combination with IL-1β effectively induced IL-17 production in naïve precursors, independently of TGF-β. Epigenetic modification of the Il17a/Il17f and Rorc promoters proceeded without TGF-β1, allowing the generation of cells that co-expressed Rorγt and T-bet. T-bet+ Rorγt+ Th17 cells are generated in vivo during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), and adoptively transferred Th17 cells generated with IL-23 without TGF-β1 were pathogenic in this disease model. These data suggest an alternative mode for Th17 differentiation. Consistent with genetic data linking IL23R with autoimmunity, our findings re-emphasize the importance of IL-23 and therefore have may have therapeutic implications.
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              Intestinal domination and the risk of bacteremia in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

              Bacteremia is a frequent complication of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). It is unclear whether changes in the intestinal microbiota during allo-HSCT contribute to the development of bacteremia. We examined the microbiota of patients undergoing allo-HSCT, and correlated microbial shifts with the risk of bacteremia. Fecal specimens were collected longitudinally from 94 patients undergoing allo-HSCT, from before transplant until 35 days after transplant. The intestinal microbiota was characterized by 454 pyrosequencing of the V1-V3 region of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes. Microbial diversity was estimated by grouping sequences into operational taxonomic units and calculating the Shannon diversity index. Phylogenetic classification was obtained using the Ribosomal Database Project classifier. Associations of the microbiota with clinical predictors and outcomes were evaluated. During allo-HSCT, patients developed reduced diversity, with marked shifts in bacterial populations inhabiting the gut. Intestinal domination, defined as occupation of at least 30% of the microbiota by a single predominating bacterial taxon, occurred frequently. Commonly encountered dominating organisms included Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and various Proteobacteria. Enterococcal domination was increased 3-fold by metronidazole administration, whereas domination by Proteobacteria was reduced 10-fold by fluoroquinolone administration. As a predictor of outcomes, enterococcal domination increased the risk of Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus bacteremia 9-fold, and proteobacterial domination increased the risk of gram-negative rod bacteremia 5-fold. During allo-HSCT, the diversity and stability of the intestinal flora are disrupted, resulting in domination by bacteria associated with subsequent bacteremia. Assessment of fecal microbiota identifies patients at highest risk for bloodstream infection during allo-HCST.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Cancer
                Nat Rev Cancer
                Springer Nature
                1474-175X
                1474-1768
                March 17 2017
                March 17 2017
                :
                :
                Article
                10.1038/nrc.2017.13
                28303904
                9812a6f0-b82a-4595-a729-05482e789f8f
                © 2017
                History

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