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      Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus Infection Demonstrates Higher Replicative Capacity and Decreased Antiviral Response in the First-Trimester Placenta

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      Journal of Immunology Research
      Hindawi

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          Abstract

          Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is a rodent disease that can be transmitted to humans. A majority of persons infected with LCMV have only minor symptoms; however, it can cross the placental barrier during pregnancy and cause congenital defects in the fetus. Some viral infections early in gestation are hypothesized to lead to worse outcomes compared to those acquired during late gestation; however, LCMV has not been studied in this context. In the present study, differences in immunomodulation between the first- and third-trimester placental explants infected with LCMV were measured. LCMV replication was observed in the first-trimester chorionic villi, but not in term. The term placenta exhibited a robust innate immune response to infection by LCMV, marked by induction of ifn- α, il- 6, and tnf- α gene expression which was not seen in the first-trimester explants. Cytokine secretion was also only seen in term explants. The results indicate that the first-trimester and term placentas differ in their permissiveness for LCMV infection, inversely correlating with the innate antiviral responses. This has implications for developing effective mechanisms that protect the fetus from infection based on stage of development.

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          Transmission of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus by organ transplantation.

          In December 2003 and April 2005, signs and symptoms suggestive of infection developed in two groups of recipients of solid-organ transplants. Each cluster was investigated because diagnostic evaluations were unrevealing, and in each a common donor was recognized. We examined clinical specimens from the two donors and eight recipients, using viral culture, electron microscopy, serologic testing, molecular analysis, and histopathological examination with immunohistochemical staining to identify a cause. Epidemiologic investigations, including interviews, environmental assessments, and medical-record reviews, were performed to characterize clinical courses and to determine the cause of the illnesses. Laboratory testing revealed lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) in all the recipients, with a single, unique strain of LCMV identified in each cluster. In both investigations, LCMV could not be detected in the organ donor. In the 2005 cluster, the donor had had contact in her home with a pet hamster infected with an LCMV strain identical to that detected in the organ recipients; no source of LCMV infection was found in the 2003 cluster. The transplant recipients had abdominal pain, altered mental status, thrombocytopenia, elevated aminotransferase levels, coagulopathy, graft dysfunction, and either fever or leukocytosis within three weeks after transplantation. Diarrhea, peri-incisional rash, renal failure, and seizures were variably present. Seven of the eight recipients died, 9 to 76 days after transplantation. One recipient, who received ribavirin and reduced levels of immunosuppressive therapy, survived. We document two clusters of LCMV infection transmitted through organ transplantation. Copyright 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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            Vital Signs: Update on Zika Virus–Associated Birth Defects and Evaluation of All U.S. Infants with Congenital Zika Virus Exposure — U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry, 2016

            Background In collaboration with state, tribal, local, and territorial health departments, CDC established the U.S. Zika Pregnancy Registry (USZPR) in early 2016 to monitor pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection and their infants. Methods This report includes an analysis of completed pregnancies (which include live births and pregnancy losses, regardless of gestational age) in the 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia (DC) with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection reported to the USZPR from January 15 to December 27, 2016. Birth defects potentially associated with Zika virus infection during pregnancy include brain abnormalities and/or microcephaly, eye abnormalities, other consequences of central nervous system dysfunction, and neural tube defects and other early brain malformations. Results During the analysis period, 1,297 pregnant women in 44 states were reported to the USZPR. Zika virus–associated birth defects were reported for 51 (5%) of the 972 fetuses/infants from completed pregnancies with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4%–7%); the proportion was higher when restricted to pregnancies with laboratory-confirmed Zika virus infection (24/250 completed pregnancies [10%, 95% CI = 7%–14%]). Birth defects were reported in 15% (95% CI = 8%–26%) of fetuses/infants of completed pregnancies with confirmed Zika virus infection in the first trimester. Among 895 liveborn infants from pregnancies with possible recent Zika virus infection, postnatal neuroimaging was reported for 221 (25%), and Zika virus testing of at least one infant specimen was reported for 585 (65%). Conclusions and Implications for Public Health Practice These findings highlight why pregnant women should avoid Zika virus exposure. Because the full clinical spectrum of congenital Zika virus infection is not yet known, all infants born to women with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection during pregnancy should receive postnatal neuroimaging and Zika virus testing in addition to a comprehensive newborn physical exam and hearing screen. Identification and follow-up care of infants born to women with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection during pregnancy and infants with possible congenital Zika virus infection can ensure that appropriate clinical services are available.
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              Human placental explants in culture: approaches and assessments.

              Placental explant cultures in vitro are useful for studying tissue functions including cellular uptake, production and release of secretory components, cell interactions, proliferation, growth and differentiation, gene delivery, pharmacology, toxicology, and disease processes. A variety of culture conditions are required to mimic in utero environments at different times of gestation including differing oxygen partial pressures, extracellular matrices and culture medium. Optimization of explant methods is examined for first and third trimester human placental tissue and the biological processes under investigation.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                J Immunol Res
                J Immunol Res
                JIR
                Journal of Immunology Research
                Hindawi
                2314-8861
                2314-7156
                2019
                7 February 2019
                : 2019
                : 7375217
                Affiliations
                Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Texas Medical Branch, 301 University Blvd, Galveston, Texas, USA
                Author notes

                Guest Editor: Gheyath K. Nasrallah

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-3621-7335
                http://orcid.org/0000-0002-3412-3653
                Article
                10.1155/2019/7375217
                6383429
                30882005
                98189ab4-cc0f-4b19-b2f8-4df579a0b565
                Copyright © 2019 Elizabeth Ann L. Enninga and Regan N. Theiler.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 9 September 2018
                : 30 October 2018
                Funding
                Funded by: University of Texas Medical Branch
                Funded by: National Institutes of Health
                Award ID: K12 HD001269
                Award ID: K12 HD065987
                Categories
                Research Article

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