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Seroprevalence of hepatitis B and C infection markers among children and adolescents in the southern Brazilian region Translated title: Soroprevalência dos marcadores de infecção das hepatites B e C em crianças e adolescentes da região sul do Brasil

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      Abstract

      Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections account for a substantial proportion of liver diseases worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV serological markers among children and adolescents and verify the epidemiology of the HBV infection over than a decade of the introduction of vaccination program. Serologic markers to HBsAg, total anti-HBc and anti-HCV had been tested in 393 samples. The seropositivity for HBsAg was 0.76% and for total anti-HBc was 1.02%. Copositivity between HBsAg and total anti-HBc was verified in 0.76% of the analyzed samples. There was no seropositivity for anti-HCV marker. The seroprevalence of HBV infection markers among children and adolescents in the southern Brazilian region is high compared to that reported in other countries. Preventive measures, such as educational activities in addition to the universal childhood HBV vaccination, should be initiated in order to reduce the morbimortality and the economic burden associated with the disease.

      Translated abstract

      As infecções pelo vírus da hepatite B (HBV) e pelo vírus da hepatite C (HCV) representam a causa de uma substancial proporção das doenças hepáticas em todo o mundo. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a prevalência dos marcadores sorológicos do HBV e do HCV em crianças e adolescentes, e verificar a epidemiologia da infecção pelo HBV passada uma década desde a introdução do programa de vacinação. Os marcadores sorológicos HBsAg, anti-HBc total e anti-HCV foram avaliados em 393 amostras. A soropositividade para o HBsAg foi de 0,76% e para o anti-HBc total foi de 1,02%. Co-positividade entre HBsAg e anti-HBc total foi verificada em 0,76% das amostras analisadas. Não houve soropositividade para o marcador anti-HCV. A soroprevalência dos marcadores de infecção pelo HBV em crianças e adolescentes da região sul do Brasil é elevada em relação à reportada em outros países. Medidas preventivas, tais como atividades educativas além da vacinação infantil universal contra o HBV, devem ser iniciadas a fim de reduzir a morbimortalidade e o impacto econômico associados a doença.

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      Most cited references 53

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       H Serag (2004)
      Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing in frequency in the United States. The age-adjusted incidence rates have doubled over the past 2 decades. Similar increases have affected the mortality and hospitalization rates. Although there has been a small recent improvement in survival, it remains generally dismal (median, 8 months). It is estimated that 8500 to 11,500 new cases of HCC occur annually in the United States. There are striking differences in the incidence of HCC related to age, gender, race, and geographic region. Although it remains an affliction of the elderly (mean age, 65 years) population, there has been a shift toward relatively younger age cases. Men are affected 3 times more frequently than women, Asians are affected 2 times more than blacks, and Hispanics are affected 2 times more often than whites. However, the recent increase has disproportionately affected white (and Hispanic) men between ages 45 and 65 years. The temporal changes of risk factors among HCC cases in the United States remain unclear. However, available studies indicate that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection acquired 2-4 decades ago explains at least half of the observed increase in HCC; HCV-related HCC is likely to continue to increase for the next decade. A variable but significant proportion of cases (15% to 50%) do not have evidence of the risk factors of viral hepatitis or heavy alcohol consumption. The insulin resistance syndrome, manifesting as obesity and diabetes, is emerging as a risk factor for HCC in the United States; however, its impact on the current trend in HCC remains unclear.
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         D Lavanchy (2005)
        Worldwide, hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most common among those hepatitis viruses that cause chronic infections of the liver in humans, and it represents a global public health problem. Chronic hepatitis caused by HBV is the major cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) worldwide, and remains therefore a major public health problem globally. This fact is related to both the continuing occurrence of frequent new infections and to the presence of a large reservoir of persons chronically infected, which may develop severe and fatal complications of chronic liver disease. Hepatitis B and all of the complications resulting from it, as well hepatitis D (HDV) and its complications, are globally preventable by hepatitis B vaccination, and therefore elimination of HBV transmission and of new acute and chronic infections is a feasible goal.
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          Hepatitis B

           Gisela Romero (2008)
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Brazil
            [2 ] Universidade Regional de Blumenau Brazil
            [3 ] Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Brazil
            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Role: ND
            Journal
            rimtsp
            Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
            Rev. Inst. Med. trop. S. Paulo
            Instituto de Medicina Tropical (São Paulo )
            1678-9946
            February 2011
            : 53
            : 1
            : 13-17
            S0036-46652011000100003
            10.1590/S0036-46652011000100003

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

            Product
            Product Information: SciELO Brazil
            Categories
            TROPICAL MEDICINE

            Infectious disease & Microbiology

            Hepatitis C, Hepatitis B, Adolescents

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