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      Links between iron supply, marine productivity, sea surface temperature, and CO2over the last 1.1 Ma : IRON, PRODUCTIVITY, AND SST OVER 1.1 MA

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          A Pliocene-Pleistocene stack of 57 globally distributed benthic δ18O records

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            Global iron connections between desert dust, ocean biogeochemistry, and climate.

            The environmental conditions of Earth, including the climate, are determined by physical, chemical, biological, and human interactions that transform and transport materials and energy. This is the "Earth system": a highly complex entity characterized by multiple nonlinear responses and thresholds, with linkages between disparate components. One important part of this system is the iron cycle, in which iron-containing soil dust is transported from land through the atmosphere to the oceans, affecting ocean biogeochemistry and hence having feedback effects on climate and dust production. Here we review the key components of this cycle, identifying critical uncertainties and priorities for future research.
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              High-resolution carbon dioxide concentration record 650,000-800,000 years before present.

              Changes in past atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations can be determined by measuring the composition of air trapped in ice cores from Antarctica. So far, the Antarctic Vostok and EPICA Dome C ice cores have provided a composite record of atmospheric carbon dioxide levels over the past 650,000 years. Here we present results of the lowest 200 m of the Dome C ice core, extending the record of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration by two complete glacial cycles to 800,000 yr before present. From previously published data and the present work, we find that atmospheric carbon dioxide is strongly correlated with Antarctic temperature throughout eight glacial cycles but with significantly lower concentrations between 650,000 and 750,000 yr before present. Carbon dioxide levels are below 180 parts per million by volume (p.p.m.v.) for a period of 3,000 yr during Marine Isotope Stage 16, possibly reflecting more pronounced oceanic carbon storage. We report the lowest carbon dioxide concentration measured in an ice core, which extends the pre-industrial range of carbon dioxide concentrations during the late Quaternary by about 10 p.p.m.v. to 172-300 p.p.m.v.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Paleoceanography
                Paleoceanography
                American Geophysical Union (AGU)
                08838305
                March 2009
                March 2009
                : 24
                : 1
                : n/a
                Article
                10.1029/2008PA001657
                981c6448-f3dc-4273-aa7c-b2b83f287405
                © 2009

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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