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      Imaging Gene Expression

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          Abstract

          Genome-wide sequencing and increasing use of microarrays has resulted in the identification of a large number of new genes which may have important functional roles in development and onset of disease. Classical approaches in gene expression studies fall short in providing information about cellular localization of these genes and their relative levels of expression in tissues. Rapid determination of gene expression can be achieved with in situ methods of localization of gene expression in combination with recent developments in imaging technology.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Tissue microarrays for high-throughput molecular profiling of tumor specimens.

          Many genes and signalling pathways controlling cell proliferation, death and differentiation, as well as genomic integrity, are involved in cancer development. New techniques, such as serial analysis of gene expression and cDNA microarrays, have enabled measurement of the expression of thousands of genes in a single experiment, revealing many new, potentially important cancer genes. These genome screening tools can comprehensively survey one tumor at a time; however, analysis of hundreds of specimens from patients in different stages of disease is needed to establish the diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic importance of each of the emerging cancer gene candidates. Here we have developed an array-based high-throughput technique that facilitates gene expression and copy number surveys of very large numbers of tumors. As many as 1000 cylindrical tissue biopsies from individual tumors can be distributed in a single tumor tissue microarray. Sections of the microarray provide targets for parallel in situ detection of DNA, RNA and protein targets in each specimen on the array, and consecutive sections allow the rapid analysis of hundreds of molecular markers in the same set of specimens. Our detection of six gene amplifications as well as p53 and estrogen receptor expression in breast cancer demonstrates the power of this technique for defining new subgroups of tumors.
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            Genomics, gene expression and DNA arrays.

            Experimental genomics in combination with the growing body of sequence information promise to revolutionize the way cells and cellular processes are studied. Information on genomic sequence can be used experimentally with high-density DNA arrays that allow complex mixtures of RNA and DNA to be interrogated in a parallel and quantitative fashion. DNA arrays can be used for many different purposes, most prominently to measure levels of gene expression (messenger RNA abundance) for tens of thousands of genes simultaneously. Measurements of gene expression and other applications of arrays embody much of what is implied by the term 'genomics'; they are broad in scope, large in scale, and take advantage of all available sequence information for experimental design and data interpretation in pursuit of biological understanding.
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              Differential display of eukaryotic messenger RNA by means of the polymerase chain reaction

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEE
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-8074-8
                978-3-318-01315-3
                1660-2129
                2006
                March 2006
                13 March 2006
                : 103
                : 2
                : e75-e80
                Affiliations
                aDivision of Nephrology, Indiana University School of Medicine, and bDivision of Nephrology, Richard Roudebush VAMC, Indianapolis, Ind., USA
                Article
                90620 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2006;103:e75–e80
                10.1159/000090620
                16543768
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, References: 51, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/90620
                Categories
                Microscopic Imaging

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