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      Endocrine disruptors and the breast: early life effects and later life disease.

      Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia

      Aging, Animals, Anticarcinogenic Agents, adverse effects, therapeutic use, Breast Neoplasms, chemically induced, prevention & control, Disease Susceptibility, Endocrine Disruptors, toxicity, Female, Humans, Mammary Glands, Animal, drug effects, growth & development, pathology, Mammary Glands, Human, Phytoestrogens

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          Breast cancer risk has both heritable and environment/lifestyle components. The heritable component is a small contribution (5-27 %), leaving the majority of risk to environment (e.g., applied chemicals, food residues, occupational hazards, pharmaceuticals, stress) and lifestyle (e.g., physical activity, cosmetics, water source, alcohol, smoking). However, these factors are not well-defined, primarily due to the enormous number of factors to be considered. In both humans and rodent models, environmental factors that act as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have been shown to disrupt normal mammary development and lead to adverse lifelong consequences, especially when exposures occur during early life. EDCs can act directly or indirectly on mammary tissue to increase sensitivity to chemical carcinogens or enhance development of hyperplasia, beaded ducts, or tumors. Protective effects have also been reported. The mechanisms for these changes are not well understood. Environmental agents may also act as carcinogens in adult rodent models, directly causing or promoting tumor development, typically in more than one organ. Many of the environmental agents that act as EDCs and are known to affect the breast are discussed. Understanding the mechanism(s) of action for these compounds will be critical to prevent their effects on the breast in the future.

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