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Impaired GABA synthesis, uptake and release are associated with depression-like behaviors induced by chronic mild stress

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      Abstract

      Major depression is a prevalent emotion disorder. Chronic stressful life in genetically susceptible individuals is presumably a major etiology that leads to neuron and synapse atrophy in the limbic system. Molecular mechanisms underlying the pathological changes remain elusive. Mice were treated by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) until they demonstrated depression-like behavior. GABA release in the medial prefrontal cortex was evaluated by cell electrophysiology and imaging. Molecular profiles related to GABA synthesis and uptake were investigated by the high-throughput sequencings of microRNAs and mRNAs as well as western blot analysis in this cortical area. In CUMS-induced depression mice, there appear the decreases in the innervation and function of GABAergic axons and in the levels of mRNAs and proteins of glutamate decarboxylase-67, vesicular GABA transporter and GABA transporter-3. miRNA-15b-5p, miRNA-144-3p, miRNA-582-5p and miRNA-879-5p that directly downregulate such mRNAs increase in this cortex. Our results suggest that chronic mild stress impairs GABA release and uptake by upregulating miRNAs and downregulating mRNAs and proteins, which may constitute the subcellular and molecular mechanisms for the lowered GABA tone in major depression.

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      Most cited references 72

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      miRDeep2 accurately identifies known and hundreds of novel microRNA genes in seven animal clades

      microRNAs (miRNAs) are a large class of small non-coding RNAs which post-transcriptionally regulate the expression of a large fraction of all animal genes and are important in a wide range of biological processes. Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing allow miRNA detection at unprecedented sensitivity, but the computational task of accurately identifying the miRNAs in the background of sequenced RNAs remains challenging. For this purpose, we have designed miRDeep2, a substantially improved algorithm which identifies canonical and non-canonical miRNAs such as those derived from transposable elements and informs on high-confidence candidates that are detected in multiple independent samples. Analyzing data from seven animal species representing the major animal clades, miRDeep2 identified miRNAs with an accuracy of 98.6–99.9% and reported hundreds of novel miRNAs. To test the accuracy of miRDeep2, we knocked down the miRNA biogenesis pathway in a human cell line and sequenced small RNAs before and after. The vast majority of the >100 novel miRNAs expressed in this cell line were indeed specifically downregulated, validating most miRDeep2 predictions. Last, a new miRNA expression profiling routine, low time and memory usage and user-friendly interactive graphic output can make miRDeep2 useful to a wide range of researchers.
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        Petilla terminology: nomenclature of features of GABAergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex.

        Neuroscience produces a vast amount of data from an enormous diversity of neurons. A neuronal classification system is essential to organize such data and the knowledge that is derived from them. Classification depends on the unequivocal identification of the features that distinguish one type of neuron from another. The problems inherent in this are particularly acute when studying cortical interneurons. To tackle this, we convened a representative group of researchers to agree on a set of terms to describe the anatomical, physiological and molecular features of GABAergic interneurons of the cerebral cortex. The resulting terminology might provide a stepping stone towards a future classification of these complex and heterogeneous cells. Consistent adoption will be important for the success of such an initiative, and we also encourage the active involvement of the broader scientific community in the dynamic evolution of this project.
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          Stress, depression, and neuroplasticity: a convergence of mechanisms.

          Increasing evidence demonstrates that neuroplasticity, a fundamental mechanism of neuronal adaptation, is disrupted in mood disorders and in animal models of stress. Here we provide an overview of the evidence that chronic stress, which can precipitate or exacerbate depression, disrupts neuroplasticity, while antidepressant treatment produces opposing effects and can enhance neuroplasticity. We discuss neuroplasticity at different levels: structural plasticity (such as plastic changes in spine and dendrite morphology as well as adult neurogenesis), functional synaptic plasticity, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms accompanying such changes. Together, these studies elucidate mechanisms that may contribute to the pathophysiology of depression. Greater appreciation of the convergence of mechanisms between stress, depression, and neuroplasticity is likely to lead to the identification of novel targets for more efficacious treatments.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ]Department of Pharmacology, Qingdao University, School of Pharmacy , Qingdao, China
            [2 ]State Key Lab of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing, China
            [3 ]Department of Biology, College of Life Science, University of Science and Technology of China , Hefei, China
            [4 ]Department of Biology, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences , Beijing, China
            Author notes
            [* ]State Key Lab of Brain and Cognitive Science, Institute of Biophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences , 15 Datun Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100101, China. E-mail: jhw@ 123456sun5.ibp.ac.cn
            [5]

            These authors contributed equally to this work.

            Journal
            Transl Psychiatry
            Transl Psychiatry
            Translational Psychiatry
            Nature Publishing Group
            2158-3188
            October 2016
            04 October 2016
            1 October 2016
            : 6
            : 10
            : e910
            27701406 5315548 tp2016181 10.1038/tp.2016.181
            Copyright © 2016 The Author(s)

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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            Original Article

            Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry

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