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      Stress and Heart Rate Variability: A Meta-Analysis and Review of the Literature

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          Abstract

          Objective

          Physical or mental imbalance caused by harmful stimuli can induce stress to maintain homeostasis. During chronic stress, the sympathetic nervous system is hyperactivated, causing physical, psychological, and behavioral abnormalities. At present, there is no accepted standard for stress evaluation. This review aimed to survey studies providing a rationale for selecting heart rate variability (HRV) as a psychological stress indicator.

          Methods

          Term searches in the Web of Science ®, National Library of Medicine (PubMed), and Google Scholar databases yielded 37 publications meeting our criteria. The inclusion criteria were involvement of human participants, HRV as an objective psychological stress measure, and measured HRV reactivity.

          Results

          In most studies, HRV variables changed in response to stress induced by various methods. The most frequently reported factor associated with variation in HRV variables was low parasympathetic activity, which is characterized by a decrease in the high-frequency band and an increase in the low-frequency band. Neuroimaging studies suggested that HRV may be linked to cortical regions (e.g., the ventromedial prefrontal cortex) that are involved in stressful situation appraisal.

          Conclusion

          In conclusion, the current neurobiological evidence suggests that HRV is impacted by stress and supports its use for the objective assessment of psychological health and stress.

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          Most cited references60

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          Heart rate variability: a review.

          Heart rate variability (HRV) is a reliable reflection of the many physiological factors modulating the normal rhythm of the heart. In fact, they provide a powerful means of observing the interplay between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. It shows that the structure generating the signal is not only simply linear, but also involves nonlinear contributions. Heart rate (HR) is a nonstationary signal; its variation may contain indicators of current disease, or warnings about impending cardiac diseases. The indicators may be present at all times or may occur at random-during certain intervals of the day. It is strenuous and time consuming to study and pinpoint abnormalities in voluminous data collected over several hours. Hence, HR variation analysis (instantaneous HR against time axis) has become a popular noninvasive tool for assessing the activities of the autonomic nervous system. Computer based analytical tools for in-depth study of data over daylong intervals can be very useful in diagnostics. Therefore, the HRV signal parameters, extracted and analyzed using computers, are highly useful in diagnostics. In this paper, we have discussed the various applications of HRV and different linear, frequency domain, wavelet domain, nonlinear techniques used for the analysis of the HRV.
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            Neurons in medial prefrontal cortex signal memory for fear extinction.

            Conditioned fear responses to a tone previously paired with a shock diminish if the tone is repeatedly presented without the shock, a process known as extinction. Since Pavlov it has been hypothesized that extinction does not erase conditioning, but forms a new memory. Destruction of the ventral medial prefrontal cortex, which consists of infralimbic and prelimbic cortices, blocks recall of fear extinction, indicating that medial prefrontal cortex might store long-term extinction memory. Here we show that infralimbic neurons recorded during fear conditioning and extinction fire to the tone only when rats are recalling extinction on the following day. Rats that froze the least showed the greatest increase in infralimbic tone responses. We also show that conditioned tones paired with brief electrical stimulation of infralimbic cortex elicit low freezing in rats that had not been extinguished. Thus, stimulation resembling extinction-induced infralimbic tone responses is able to simulate extinction memory. We suggest that consolidation of extinction learning potentiates infralimbic activity, which inhibits fear during subsequent encounters with fear stimuli.
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              Neural circuitry underlying the regulation of conditioned fear and its relation to extinction.

              Recent efforts to translate basic research to the treatment of clinical disorders have led to a growing interest in exploring mechanisms for diminishing fear. This research has emphasized two approaches: extinction of conditioned fear, examined across species; and cognitive emotion regulation, unique to humans. Here, we sought to examine the similarities and differences in the neural mechanisms underlying these two paradigms for diminishing fear. Using an emotion regulation strategy, we examine the neural mechanisms of regulating conditioned fear using fMRI and compare the resulting activation pattern with that observed during classic extinction. Our results suggest that the lateral PFC regions engaged by cognitive emotion regulation strategies may influence the amygdala, diminishing fear through similar vmPFC connections that are thought to inhibit the amygdala during extinction. These findings further suggest that humans may have developed complex cognition that can aid in regulating emotional responses while utilizing phylogenetically shared mechanisms of extinction.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Psychiatry Investig
                Psychiatry Investig
                PI
                Psychiatry Investigation
                Korean Neuropsychiatric Association
                1738-3684
                1976-3026
                March 2018
                28 February 2018
                : 15
                : 3
                : 235-245
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu, Republic of Korea
                [2 ]Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, Daegu, Republic of Korea
                [3 ]Division of Clinical Psychology, Department of Psychiatry, Yeungnam University Medical Center, Daegu, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Bon-Hoon Koo, MD, PhD Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, 170 Hyeonchung-ro, Nam-gu, Daegu 42415, Republic of Korea Tel: +82-53-620-3343, Fax: +82-53-629-0256, E-mail: vijnana@ 123456chol.com
                Correspondence: Young Hwan Lee, MD, PhD Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Yeungnam University, 170 Hyeonchung-ro, Nam-gu, Daegu 42415, Republic of Korea Tel: +82-53-640-6999, Fax: +82-53-629-2252, E-mail: yhlee3535@ 123456ynu.ac.kr
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                pi-2017-08-17
                10.30773/pi.2017.08.17
                5900369
                29486547
                9838d8dc-492b-4ba7-ac6d-d2051a8da299
                Copyright © 2018 Korean Neuropsychiatric Association

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 5 May 2017
                : 1 August 2017
                : 17 August 2017
                Categories
                Review Article

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                heart rate variability,stress,autonomic nervous system
                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                heart rate variability, stress, autonomic nervous system

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