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      Quantitative CT assessment of bronchial and vascular alterations in severe precapillary pulmonary hypertension

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          Abstract

          Background

          Little is known about in vivo alterations at bronchial and vascular levels in severe pulmonary hypertension (PH) of different etiologies. We aimed to compare quantitative computed tomography (CT) data from the following three groups of severe precapillary PH patients: COPD, idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH), and chronic thromboembolic PH (CTEPH).

          Patients and methods

          This study was approved by the institutional review board. Severe PH patients (mean pulmonary arterial pressure [mPAP] ≥35 mmHg) with COPD, iPAH, or CTEPH (n=24, 16, or 16, respectively) were included retrospectively between January 2008 and January 2017. Univariate analysis of mPAP was performed in each severe PH group. Bronchial wall thickness (WT) and percentage of cross sectional area of pulmonary vessels less than 5 mm 2 normalized by lung area (%CSA <5) were measured and compared using CT, and then combined to arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO 2) to generate a “paw score” compared within the three groups using Kruskal–Wallis and its sensitivity using Fisher’s exact test.

          Results

          WT was higher and %CSA <5 was lower in the COPD group compared to iPAH and CTEPH groups. Mosaic pattern was higher in CTEPH group than in others. In severe PH patients secondary to COPD, mPAP was positively correlated to %CSA <5. By contrast, in severe iPAH, this correlation was negative, or not correlated in severe CTEPH groups. In the COPD group, “paw score” showed higher sensitivity than in the other two groups.

          Conclusion

          Unlike in severe iPAH and CTEPH, severe PH with COPD can be predicted by “paw score” reflecting bronchial and vascular morphological differential alterations.

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          Most cited references 26

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          A comparison of continuous intravenous epoprostenol (prostacyclin) with conventional therapy for primary pulmonary hypertension.

          Primary pulmonary hypertension is a progressive disease for which no treatment has been shown in a prospective, randomized trial to improve survival. We conducted a 12-week prospective, randomized, multicenter open trial comparing the effects of the continuous intravenous infusion of epoprostenol (formerly called prostacyclin) plus conventional therapy with those of conventional therapy alone in 81 patients with severe primary pulmonary hypertension (New York Heart Association functional class III or IV). Exercise capacity was improved in the 41 patients treated with epoprostenol (median distance walked in six minutes, 362 m at 12 weeks vs. 315 m at base line), but it decreased in the 40 patients treated with conventional therapy alone (204 m at 12 weeks vs. 270 m at base line; P < 0.002 for the comparison of the treatment groups). Indexes of the quality of life were improved only in the epoprostenol group (P < 0.01). Hemodynamics improved at 12 weeks in the epoprostenol-treated patients. The changes in mean pulmonary-artery pressure for the epoprostenol and control groups were -8 percent and +3 percent, respectively (difference in mean change, -6.7 mm Hg; 95 percent confidence interval, -10.7 to -2.6 mm Hg; P < 0.002), and the mean changes in pulmonary vascular resistance for the epoprostenol and control groups were -21 percent and +9 percent, respectively (difference in mean change, -4.9 mm Hg/liter/min; 95 percent confidence interval, -7.6 to -2.3 mm Hg/liter/min; P < 0.001). Eight patients died during the study, all of whom had been randomly assigned to conventional therapy (P = 0.003). Serious complications included four episodes of catheter-related sepsis and one thrombotic event. As compared with conventional therapy, the continuous intravenous infusion of epoprostenol produced symptomatic and hemodynamic improvement, as well as improved survival in patients with severe primary pulmonary hypertension.
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            Hypoxia-induced pulmonary vascular remodeling: cellular and molecular mechanisms.

            Chronic hypoxic exposure induces changes in the structure of pulmonary arteries, as well as in the biochemical and functional phenotypes of each of the vascular cell types, from the hilum of the lung to the most peripheral vessels in the alveolar wall. The magnitude and the specific profile of the changes depend on the species, sex, and the developmental stage at which the exposure to hypoxia occurred. Further, hypoxia-induced changes are site specific, such that the remodeling process in the large vessels differs from that in the smallest vessels. The cellular and molecular mechanisms vary and depend on the cellular composition of vessels at particular sites along the longitudinal axis of the pulmonary vasculature, as well as on local environmental factors. Each of the resident vascular cell types (ie, endothelial, smooth muscle, adventitial fibroblast) undergo site- and time-dependent alterations in proliferation, matrix protein production, expression of growth factors, cytokines, and receptors, and each resident cell type plays a specific role in the overall remodeling response. In addition, hypoxic exposure induces an inflammatory response within the vessel wall, and the recruited circulating progenitor cells contribute significantly to the structural remodeling and persistent vasoconstriction of the pulmonary circulation. The possibility exists that the lung or lung vessels also contain resident progenitor cells that participate in the remodeling process. Thus the hypoxia-induced remodeling of the pulmonary circulation is a highly complex process where numerous interactive events must be taken into account as we search for newer, more effective therapeutic interventions. This review provides perspectives on each of the aforementioned areas.
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              Echocardiographic assessment of pulmonary hypertension in patients with advanced lung disease.

              Doppler echocardiography is commonly used to estimate systolic pulmonary artery pressure and to diagnose pulmonary hypertension, but data relating to its utility in patients with advanced lung disease are limited. In a cohort study of 374 lung transplant candidates, the performance characteristics of echocardiography compared with right heart catheterization in the determination of systolic pulmonary artery pressure and diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension were investigated. The prevalence of pulmonary hypertension was 25% in the study population. Estimation of systolic pulmonary artery pressure by echocardiography was possible in 166 patients (44%). The correlation between systolic pulmonary artery pressure estimated by echocardiography and measured by cardiac catheterization was good (r = 0.69, p < 0.0001). However, 52% of pressure estimations were found to be inaccurate (more than 10 mm Hg difference compared with measured pressure), and 48% of patients were misclassified as having pulmonary hypertension by echocardiography. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of systolic pulmonary artery pressure estimation for diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension were 85%, 55%, 52%, and 87%, respectively. In conclusion, despite a statistically significant correlation with directly measured values, estimation of systolic pulmonary artery pressure by echocardiography is frequently inaccurate in patients with advanced lung disease and leads to considerable overdiagnosis of pulmonary hypertension.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2019
                11 February 2019
                : 14
                : 381-389
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Université de Bordeaux, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique de Bordeaux, U1045, F-33000 Bordeaux, France, florence-coste@ 123456hotmail.fr
                [2 ]Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique de Bordeaux, INSERM, U1045, Université de Bordeaux, CIC1401, F-33000 Bordeaux, France, florence-coste@ 123456hotmail.fr
                [3 ]CHU de Bordeaux, Service d’Imagerie Thoracique et Cardiovasculaire, Service des Maladies Respiratoires, Service de Cardiologie, CIC1401, Service d’Explorations Fonctionnelles Respiratoires, F-33600 Pessac, France
                [4 ]Université de Bordeaux, LaBRI, F-33405 Talence Cedex, France
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Florence Coste, Centre de Recherche Cardio-Thoracique de Bordeaux, INSERM, U1045, Université de Bordeaux, 146 Rue Léo Saignat, 33076 Bordeaux Cedex, France, Tel +33 547 30 27 51, Fax +33 55 757 1695, Email florence-coste@ 123456hotmail.fr
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                copd-14-381
                10.2147/COPD.S177638
                6377046
                © 2019 Coste et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                quantitative, computed tomography, pulmonary hypertension, copd, prediction

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