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      Putting self‐regulated learning in context: Integrating self‐, co‐, and socially shared regulation of learning


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          Processes involved in the regulation of learning have been researched for decades, because of its impact on academic and workplace performance. In fact, self‐regulated learning is the focus of countless studies in health professions education and higher education in general. While we will always need competent individuals who are able to regulate their own learning, developments in healthcare require a shift from a focus on the individual to the collective: collaboration within and between healthcare teams is at the heart of high‐quality patient care. Concepts of collaborative learning and collective competence challenge commonly held conceptualisations of regulatory learning and call for a focus on the social embeddedness of regulatory learning and processes regulating the learning of the collective. Therefore, this article questions the alignment of current conceptualisations of regulation of learning with demands for collaboration in current healthcare. We explore different conceptualisations of regulation of learning (self‐, co‐, and socially shared regulation of learning), and elaborate on how the integration of these conceptualisations adds to our understanding of regulatory learning in healthcare settings. Building on these insights, we furthermore suggest ways forward for research and educational practice.


          Bransen et al. explore the concept of 'self' to argue that the health professions need to shift from striving to optimize self‐regulation to understanding how to effectively regulate across self‐, co‐, and shared‐regulation.

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          Most cited references73

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          A social cognitive view of self-regulated academic learning.

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            Investigating Self-Regulation and Motivation: Historical Background, Methodological Developments, and Future Prospects

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              A Review of Self-regulated Learning: Six Models and Four Directions for Research

              Self-regulated learning (SRL) includes the cognitive, metacognitive, behavioral, motivational, and emotional/affective aspects of learning. It is, therefore, an extraordinary umbrella under which a considerable number of variables that influence learning (e.g., self-efficacy, volition, cognitive strategies) are studied within a comprehensive and holistic approach. For that reason, SRL has become one of the most important areas of research within educational psychology. In this paper, six models of SRL are analyzed and compared; that is, Zimmerman; Boekaerts; Winne and Hadwin; Pintrich; Efklides; and Hadwin, Järvelä and Miller. First, each model is explored in detail in the following aspects: (a) history and development, (b) description of the model (including the model figures), (c) empirical support, and (d) instruments constructed based on the model. Then, the models are compared in a number of aspects: (a) citations, (b) phases and subprocesses, (c) how they conceptualize (meta)cognition, motivation and emotion, (d) top–down/bottom–up, (e) automaticity, and (f) context. In the discussion, the empirical evidence from the existing SRL meta-analyses is examined and implications for education are extracted. Further, four future lines of research are proposed. The review reaches two main conclusions. First, the SRL models form an integrative and coherent framework from which to conduct research and on which students can be taught to be more strategic and successful. Second, based on the available meta-analytic evidence, there are differential effects of SRL models in light of differences in students’ developmental stages or educational levels. Thus, scholars and teachers need to start applying these differential effects of the SRL models and theories to enhance students’ learning and SRL skills.

                Author and article information

                Med Educ
                Med Educ
                Medical Education
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                07 June 2021
                January 2022
                : 56
                : 1 ( doiID: 10.1111/medu.v56.1 )
                : 29-36
                [ 1 ] School of Health Professions Education (SHE) Maastricht University Maastricht The Netherlands
                [ 2 ] Department of Educational Development and Research Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Science Maastricht University Maastricht The Netherlands
                [ 3 ] Facultad de Psicología y Educación Universidad de Deusto Bilbao España
                [ 4 ] IKERBASQUE Basque Foundation for Science Bilbao Spain
                [ 5 ] Faculty of Social Sciences Radboud University Nijmegen The Netherlands
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Derk Bransen, School of Health Professions Education (SHE), Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

                Email: d.bransen@ 123456maastrichtuniversity.nl

                Author information
                © 2021 The Authors. Medical Education published by Association for the Study of Medical Education John Wiley & Sons Ltd

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 03 May 2021
                : 15 February 2021
                : 08 May 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Pages: 8, Words: 16729
                State of the Science
                State of the Science
                Custom metadata
                January 2022
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:6.1.7 mode:remove_FC converted:18.07.2022



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