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      Distant Metastasis after Surgery for Encapsulated Papillary Carcinoma of the Breast: A Case Report

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          Abstract

          In the absence of clear interstitial invasion, encapsulated papillary carcinoma (EPC) of the breast may be attributed to an extremely good prognosis if handled similarly to ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) with suitable local treatment. Here, we report our experience with a case of EPC of the breast that presented with carcinomatous pleuritis and lymphangitis carcinomatosa postoperatively, which rapidly resulted in a poor outcome. A 67-year-old woman was diagnosed with DCIS of the left breast and underwent left partial mastectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy. EPC was diagnosed because the pathological examination showed no sign of interstitial infiltration. Postoperative radiation therapy was performed. Five years and 9 months postoperatively, the patient began experiencing cough and shortness of breath on exertion. Imaging showed right pleural effusion and consolidation of the lung field, but nothing suggesting local recurrence in the preserved left breast, local lymph nodes, or opposite breast was observed. Postoperative recurrence of breast cancer, carcinomatous pleuritis, and lymphangitis carcinomatosa were diagnosed based on the results of pleural fluid cytology. One month later, multiple brain metastases were found, and the patient died of the primary disease 5 months after recurrence. After surgery for EPC without clear interstitial infiltration, there was a small possibility of a poor outcome from distant metastasis. Therefore, although distant metastasis is uncommon, regular examination and testing should be performed.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Long-term outcomes of invasive ipsilateral breast tumor recurrences after lumpectomy in NSABP B-17 and B-24 randomized clinical trials for DCIS.

          Ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) is the most common failure event after lumpectomy for ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). We evaluated invasive IBTR (I-IBTR) and its influence on survival among participants in two National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) randomized trials for DCIS. In the NSABP B-17 trial (accrual period: October 1, 1985, to December 31, 1990), patients with localized DCIS were randomly assigned to the lumpectomy only (LO, n = 403) group or to the lumpectomy followed by radiotherapy (LRT, n = 410) group. In the NSABP B-24 double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial (accrual period: May 9, 1991, to April 13, 1994), all accrued patients were randomly assigned to LRT+ placebo, (n=900) or LRT + tamoxifen (LRT + TAM, n = 899). Endpoints included I-IBTR, DCIS-IBTR, contralateral breast cancers (CBC), overall and breast cancer-specific survival, and survival after I-IBTR. Median follow-up was 207 months for the B-17 trial (N = 813 patients) and 163 months for the B-24 trial (N = 1799 patients). Of 490 IBTR events, 263 (53.7%) were invasive. Radiation reduced I-IBTR by 52% in the LRT group compared with LO (B-17, hazard ratio [HR] of risk of I-IBTR = 0.48, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.33 to 0.69, P < .001). LRT + TAM reduced I-IBTR by 32% compared with LRT + placebo (B-24, HR of risk of I-IBTR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.49 to 0.95, P = .025). The 15-year cumulative incidence of I-IBTR was 19.4% for LO, 8.9% for LRT (B-17), 10.0% for LRT + placebo (B-24), and 8.5% for LRT + TAM. The 15-year cumulative incidence of all contralateral breast cancers was 10.3% for LO, 10.2% for LRT (B-17), 10.8% for LRT + placebo (B-24), and 7.3% for LRT + TAM. I-IBTR was associated with increased mortality risk (HR of death = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.45 to 2.96, P < .001), whereas recurrence of DCIS was not. Twenty-two of 39 deaths after I-IBTR were attributed to breast cancer. Among all patients (with or without I-IBTR), the 15-year cumulative incidence of breast cancer death was 3.1% for LO, 4.7% for LRT (B-17), 2.7% for LRT + placebo (B-24), and 2.3% for LRT + TAM. Although I-IBTR increased the risk for breast cancer-related death, radiation therapy and tamoxifen reduced I-IBTR, and long-term prognosis remained excellent after breast-conserving surgery for DCIS.
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            Lumpectomy and radiation therapy for the treatment of intraductal breast cancer: findings from National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project B-17.

            In 1993, findings from a National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) trial to evaluate the worth of radiation therapy after lumpectomy concluded that the combination was more beneficial than lumpectomy alone for localized intraductal carcinoma-in-situ (DCIS). This report extends those findings. Women (N = 818) with localized DCIS were randomly assigned to lumpectomy or lumpectomy plus radiation (50 Gy). Tissue was removed so that resected specimen margins were histologically tumor-free. Mean follow-up time was 90 months (range, 67 to 130). Size and method of tumor detection were determined by central clinical, mammographic, and pathologic assessment. Life-table estimates of event-free survival and survival, average annual rates of occurrence for specific events, relative risks for event-specific end points, and cumulative probability of specific events comprising event-free survival are presented. The benefit of lumpectomy plus radiation was virtually unchanged between 5 and 8 years of follow-up and was due to a reduction in invasive and noninvasive ipsilateral breast tumors (IBTs). Incidence of locoregional and distant events remained similar in both treatment groups; deaths were only infrequently related to breast cancer. Incidence of noninvasive IBT was reduced from 13.4% to 8.2% (P = .007), and of invasive IBT, from 13.4% to 3.9% (P < .0001). All cohorts benefited from radiation regardless of clinical or mammographic tumor characteristics. Through 8 years of follow-up, our findings continue to indicate that lumpectomy plus radiation is more beneficial than lumpectomy alone for women with localized, mammographically detected DCIS. When evaluated according to the mammographic characteristics of their DCIS, all groups benefited from radiation.
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              Risk factors for recurrence and metastasis after breast-conserving therapy for ductal carcinoma-in-situ: analysis of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Trial 10853.

              In view of the increasing number of patients treated with breast-conserving treatment (BCT) for ductal carcinoma-in-situ (DCIS), risk factors for recurrence and metastasis should be identified. Clinical and pathologic characteristics from patients with DCIS in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer trial 10853 (excision with or without radiotherapy) were related to the risk of recurrence. Pathologic features were derived from a central review of 863 of the 1,010 randomized cases (85%). The median follow-up was 5.4 years. Factors associated with an increased risk of local recurrence in the multivariate analysis were young age (< or = 40 years) (hazard ratio, 2.14; P =.02), symptomatic detection of DCIS (hazard ratio, 1.80; P =.008), growth pattern (solid and cribriform) (hazard ratios, 2.67 and 2.69, respectively; P =.012), involved margins (hazard ratio, 2.07; P =.0008), and treatment by local excision alone (hazard ratio, 1.74; P =.009). The risk of invasive recurrence was not related to the histologic type of DCIS (P =.63), but the risk of distant metastasis was significantly higher in poorly differentiated DCIS compared with well-differentiated DCIS (hazard ratio, 6.57; P =.01). Patients with poorly differentiated DCIS have a high risk of distant metastasis after invasive local recurrence. Margin status is the most important factor in the success of BCT for DCIS; additionally, young age and symptomatic detection of DCIS have negative prognostic value.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRO
                CRO
                10.1159/issn.1662-6575
                Case Reports in Ophthalmology
                S. Karger AG
                1662-6575
                2020
                September - December 2020
                29 September 2020
                : 13
                : 3
                : 1196-1201
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Breast Surgery, Ibaraki Prefectural Central Hospital and Ibaraki Cancer Center, Kasama, Japan
                bDepartment of Diagnostic Pathology, Ibaraki Prefectural Central Hospital and Ibaraki Cancer Center, Kasama, Japan
                Author notes
                *Miyuki Kitahara, Department of Breast Surgery Ibaraki Prefectural Central Hospital and Cancer Center, 6528 Koibuchi, Kasama, Ibaraki 309-1793 (Japan), m-kitahara@chubyoin.pref.ibaraki.jp
                Article
                510308 PMC7590764 Case Rep Oncol 2020;13:1196–1201
                10.1159/000510308
                PMC7590764
                33173485
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Case Report

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