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      Topology of the human and mouse m6A RNA methylomes revealed by m6A-seq

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          Abstract

          An extensive repertoire of modifications is known to underlie the versatile coding, structural and catalytic functions of RNA, but it remains largely uncharted territory. Although biochemical studies indicate that N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most prevalent internal modification in messenger RNA, an in-depth study of its distribution and functions has been impeded by a lack of robust analytical methods. Here we present the human and mouse m(6)A modification landscape in a transcriptome-wide manner, using a novel approach, m(6)A-seq, based on antibody-mediated capture and massively parallel sequencing. We identify over 12,000 m(6)A sites characterized by a typical consensus in the transcripts of more than 7,000 human genes. Sites preferentially appear in two distinct landmarks--around stop codons and within long internal exons--and are highly conserved between human and mouse. Although most sites are well preserved across normal and cancerous tissues and in response to various stimuli, a subset of stimulus-dependent, dynamically modulated sites is identified. Silencing the m(6)A methyltransferase significantly affects gene expression and alternative splicing patterns, resulting in modulation of the p53 (also known as TP53) signalling pathway and apoptosis. Our findings therefore suggest that RNA decoration by m(6)A has a fundamental role in regulation of gene expression.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Is Open Access

          Ensembl BioMarts: a hub for data retrieval across taxonomic space

          For a number of years the BioMart data warehousing system has proven to be a valuable resource for scientists seeking a fast and versatile means of accessing the growing volume of genomic data provided by the Ensembl project. The launch of the Ensembl Genomes project in 2009 complemented the Ensembl project by utilizing the same visualization, interactive and programming tools to provide users with a means for accessing genome data from a further five domains: protists, bacteria, metazoa, plants and fungi. The Ensembl and Ensembl Genomes BioMarts provide a point of access to the high-quality gene annotation, variation data, functional and regulatory annotation and evolutionary relationships from genomes spanning the taxonomic space. This article aims to give a comprehensive overview of the Ensembl and Ensembl Genomes BioMarts as well as some useful examples and a description of current data content and future objectives. Database URLs: http://www.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://metazoa.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://plants.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://protists.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://fungi.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/; http://bacteria.ensembl.org/biomart/martview/
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            Identification of novel transcripts in annotated genomes using RNA-Seq.

            We describe a new 'reference annotation based transcript assembly' problem for RNA-Seq data that involves assembling novel transcripts in the context of an existing annotation. This problem arises in the analysis of expression in model organisms, where it is desirable to leverage existing annotations for discovering novel transcripts. We present an algorithm for reference annotation-based transcript assembly and show how it can be used to rapidly investigate novel transcripts revealed by RNA-Seq in comparison with a reference annotation. The methods described in this article are implemented in the Cufflinks suite of software for RNA-Seq, freely available from http://bio.math.berkeley.edu/cufflinks. The software is released under the BOOST license. cole@broadinstitute.org; lpachter@math.berkeley.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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              Alternative splicing and evolution: diversification, exon definition and function.

              Over the past decade, it has been shown that alternative splicing (AS) is a major mechanism for the enhancement of transcriptome and proteome diversity, particularly in mammals. Splicing can be found in species from bacteria to humans, but its prevalence and characteristics vary considerably. Evolutionary studies are helping to address questions that are fundamental to understanding this important process: how and when did AS evolve? Which AS events are functional? What are the evolutionary forces that shaped, and continue to shape, AS? And what determines whether an exon is spliced in a constitutive or alternative manner? In this Review, we summarize the current knowledge of AS and evolution and provide insights into some of these unresolved questions.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                May 2012
                April 29 2012
                May 2012
                : 485
                : 7397
                : 201-206
                Article
                10.1038/nature11112
                22575960
                © 2012

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