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      Hematite mining in the ancient Americas: Mina Primavera, A 2,000 year old Peruvian mine

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      JOM

      Springer Nature America, Inc

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          Most cited references 12

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          STYLE AND TIME IN THE MIDDLE HORIZON

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            Burning down the brewery: establishing and evacuating an ancient imperial colony at Cerro Baul, Peru.

            Before the Inca reigned, two empires held sway over the central Andes from anno Domini 600 to 1000: the Wari empire to the north ruled much of Peru, and Tiwanaku to the south reigned in Bolivia. Face-to-face contact came when both colonized the Moquegua Valley sierra in southern Peru. The state-sponsored Wari incursion, described here, entailed large-scale agrarian reclamation to sustain the occupation of two hills and the adjacent high mesa of Cerro Baúl. Monumental buildings were erected atop the mesa to serve an embassy-like delegation of nobles and attendant personnel that endured for centuries. Final evacuation of the Baúl enclave was accompanied by elaborate ceremonies with brewing, drinking, feasting, vessel smashing, and building burning.
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              The Thorny Oyster and the Voice of God: Spondylus and Strombus in Andean Prehistory

              An exchange network based on long-distance export of Spondylus and Strombus, two mollusks native to coastal Ecuador, united the sierra and coast of both Ecuador and Peru during a long period of Andean prehistory. The gradual expansion of the export area is sketched, using evidence from three successive periods: (A) 2800 to 1100 B.C., (B) 1100 to 100 B.C., and (C) 100 B.C. to A.D. 1532. Each of these periods corresponds not only to an enlargement of the exchange sphere, but also to a striking change in the sociocultural status and role of the two shellfish in highland Ecuador and in Peru. This series of qualitative changes is related to evolutionary sociopolitical developments in the central Andes. Chávin is seen as a pristine state, linked to the later Huari and Inca empires through their common use of Spondylus and Strombus shells as symbols of the oracles that were important integrative mechanisms in the evolution toward large-scale societies.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JOM
                JOM
                Springer Nature America, Inc
                1047-4838
                1543-1851
                December 2007
                December 15 2007
                December 2007
                : 59
                : 12
                : 16-20
                Article
                10.1007/s11837-007-0145-x
                © 2007
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