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HIV and noncommunicable disease comorbidities in the era of antiretroviral therapy: a vital agenda for research in low- and middle-income country settings.

Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes (1999)

epidemiology, Africa South of the Sahara, Latin America, Humans, drug therapy, HIV Infections, Developing Countries, trends, Comorbidity, Caribbean Region, Asia, Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active, therapeutic use, Anti-Retroviral Agents

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      Abstract

      In this special 2014 issue of JAIDS, international investigator teams review a host of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) that are often reported among people living and aging with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. With the longer lifespans that antiretroviral therapy programs have made possible, NCDs are occurring due to a mix of chronic immune activation, medication side effects, coinfections, and the aging process itself. Cancer; cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases; metabolic, body, and bone disorders; gastrointestinal, hepatic, and nutritional aspects; mental, neurological, and substance use disorders; and renal and genitourinary diseases are discussed. Cost-effectiveness, key research methods, and issues of special importance in Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean are also addressed. In this introduction, we present some of the challenges and opportunities for addressing HIV and NCD comorbidities in low- and middle-income countries, and preview the research agenda that emerges from the articles that follow.

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      Improving the prevention and management of chronic disease in low-income and middle-income countries: a priority for primary health care.

      The burden of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, and mental disorders is high in low-income and middle-income countries and is predicted to increase with the ageing of populations, urbanisation, and globalisation of risk factors. Furthermore, HIV/AIDS is increasingly becoming a chronic disorder. An integrated approach to the management of chronic diseases, irrespective of cause, is needed in primary health care. Management of chronic diseases is fundamentally different from acute care, relying on several features: opportunistic case finding for assessment of risk factors, detection of early disease, and identification of high risk status; a combination of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions, often in a stepped-care fashion; and long-term follow-up with regular monitoring and promotion of adherence to treatment. To meet the challenge of chronic diseases, primary health care will have to be strengthened substantially. In the many countries with shortages of primary-care doctors, non-physician clinicians will have a leading role in preventing and managing chronic diseases, and these personnel need appropriate training and continuous quality assurance mechanisms. More evidence is needed about the cost-effectiveness of prevention and treatment strategies in primary health care. Research on scaling-up should be embedded in large-scale delivery programmes for chronic diseases with a strong emphasis on assessment.
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        The double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases in developing countries.

        Now, at the dawn of the third millennium, non-communicable diseases are sweeping the entire globe. There is an increasing trend in developing countries, where the demographic and socio-economic transition imposes more constraints on dealing with the double burden of infectious and non-infectious diseases in a poor environment, characterized by ill-health systems. It is predicted that, by 2020, non-communicable diseases will cause seven out of every ten deaths in developing countries. Among non-communicable diseases, special attention is devoted to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer and chronic pulmonary disease. The burden of these conditions affects countries worldwide but with a growing trend in developing countries. Preventative strategies must take into account the growing trend of risk factors correlated to these diseases. In parallel, despite the success of vaccination programmes for polio and some childhood diseases, other diseases like AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and dengue are still out of control in many regions of the globe. This paper is a brief review of recent literature dealing with communicable and non-communicable diseases in developing countries. It gives a global view of the main diseases and their impact on populations living in low- and middle-income nations.
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          Prevention and management of chronic disease: a litmus test for health-systems strengthening in low-income and middle-income countries.

          National health systems need strengthening if they are to meet the growing challenge of chronic diseases in low-income and middle-income countries. By application of an accepted health-systems framework to the evidence, we report that the factors that limit countries' capacity to implement proven strategies for chronic diseases relate to the way in which health systems are designed and function. Substantial constraints are apparent across each of the six key health-systems components of health financing, governance, health workforce, health information, medical products and technologies, and health-service delivery. These constraints have become more evident as development partners have accelerated efforts to respond to HIV, tuberculosis, malaria, and vaccine-preventable diseases. A new global agenda for health-systems strengthening is arising from the urgent need to scale up and sustain these priority interventions. Most chronic diseases are neglected in this dialogue about health systems, despite the fact that non-communicable diseases (most of which are chronic) will account for 69% of all global deaths by 2030 with 80% of these deaths in low-income and middle-income countries. At the same time, advocates for action against chronic diseases are not paying enough attention to health systems as part of an effective response. Efforts to scale up interventions for management of common chronic diseases in these countries tend to focus on one disease and its causes, and are often fragmented and vertical. Evidence is emerging that chronic disease interventions could contribute to strengthening the capacity of health systems to deliver a comprehensive range of services-provided that such investments are planned to include these broad objectives. Because effective chronic disease programmes are highly dependent on well-functioning national health systems, chronic diseases should be a litmus test for health-systems strengthening. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Journal
            10.1097/QAI.0000000000000267
            25117958

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