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      ILC3 function as a double-edged sword in inflammatory bowel diseases

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          Abstract

          Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), composed mainly of Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are strongly implicated in the development of intestinal inflammation lesions. Its exact etiology and pathogenesis are still undetermined. Recently accumulating evidence supports that group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) are responsible for gastrointestinal mucosal homeostasis through moderate generation of IL-22, IL-17, and GM-CSF in the physiological state. ILC3 contribute to the progression and aggravation of IBD while both IL-22 and IL-17, along with IFN-γ, are overexpressed by the dysregulation of NCR ILC3 or NCR + ILC3 function and the bias of NCR + ILC3 towards ILC1 as well as regulatory ILC dysfunction in the pathological state. Herein, we feature the group 3 innate lymphoid cells’ development, biological function, maintenance of gut homeostasis, mediation of IBD occurrence, and potential application to IBD therapy.

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          Most cited references 106

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          Diet rapidly and reproducibly alters the human gut microbiome

          Long-term diet influences the structure and activity of the trillions of microorganisms residing in the human gut 1–5 , but it remains unclear how rapidly and reproducibly the human gut microbiome responds to short-term macronutrient change. Here, we show that the short-term consumption of diets composed entirely of animal or plant products alters microbial community structure and overwhelms inter-individual differences in microbial gene expression. The animal-based diet increased the abundance of bile-tolerant microorganisms (Alistipes, Bilophila, and Bacteroides) and decreased the levels of Firmicutes that metabolize dietary plant polysaccharides (Roseburia, Eubacterium rectale, and Ruminococcus bromii). Microbial activity mirrored differences between herbivorous and carnivorous mammals 2 , reflecting trade-offs between carbohydrate and protein fermentation. Foodborne microbes from both diets transiently colonized the gut, including bacteria, fungi, and even viruses. Finally, increases in the abundance and activity of Bilophila wadsworthia on the animal-based diet support a link between dietary fat, bile acids, and the outgrowth of microorganisms capable of triggering inflammatory bowel disease 6 . In concert, these results demonstrate that the gut microbiome can rapidly respond to altered diet, potentially facilitating the diversity of human dietary lifestyles.
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            Host-microbe interactions have shaped the genetic architecture of inflammatory bowel disease

            Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), the two common forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), affect over 2.5 million people of European ancestry with rising prevalence in other populations 1 . Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and subsequent meta-analyses of CD and UC 2,3 as separate phenotypes implicated previously unsuspected mechanisms, such as autophagy 4 , in pathogenesis and showed that some IBD loci are shared with other inflammatory diseases 5 . Here we expand knowledge of relevant pathways by undertaking a meta-analysis of CD and UC genome-wide association scans, with validation of significant findings in more than 75,000 cases and controls. We identify 71 new associations, for a total of 163 IBD loci that meet genome-wide significance thresholds. Most loci contribute to both phenotypes, and both directional and balancing selection effects are evident. Many IBD loci are also implicated in other immune-mediated disorders, most notably with ankylosing spondylitis and psoriasis. We also observe striking overlap between susceptibility loci for IBD and mycobacterial infection. Gene co-expression network analysis emphasizes this relationship, with pathways shared between host responses to mycobacteria and those predisposing to IBD.
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              Association analyses identify 38 susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease and highlight shared genetic risk across populations.

              Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are the two main forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Here we report the first trans-ancestry association study of IBD, with genome-wide or Immunochip genotype data from an extended cohort of 86,640 European individuals and Immunochip data from 9,846 individuals of East Asian, Indian or Iranian descent. We implicate 38 loci in IBD risk for the first time. For the majority of the IBD risk loci, the direction and magnitude of effect are consistent in European and non-European cohorts. Nevertheless, we observe genetic heterogeneity between divergent populations at several established risk loci driven by differences in allele frequency (NOD2) or effect size (TNFSF15 and ATG16L1) or a combination of these factors (IL23R and IRGM). Our results provide biological insights into the pathogenesis of IBD and demonstrate the usefulness of trans-ancestry association studies for mapping loci associated with complex diseases and understanding genetic architecture across diverse populations.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                0044-1334-769074 , c.dong@uea.ac.uk
                0086-20-85227010 , tjliu@jnu.edu.cn
                0086-20-85220723 , tfyxing@jnu.edu.cn
                Journal
                Cell Death Dis
                Cell Death Dis
                Cell Death & Disease
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2041-4889
                8 April 2019
                8 April 2019
                April 2019
                : 10
                : 4
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1790 3548, GRID grid.258164.c, Institute of Tissue Transplantation and Immunology, Department of Immunobiology, , Jinan University, ; Guangzhou, China
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1790 3548, GRID grid.258164.c, Key Laboratory of Functional Protein Research of Guangdong, Higher Education Institutes, , Jinan University, ; Guangzhou, China
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1790 3548, GRID grid.258164.c, School of Stomatology, , Jinan University, ; Guangzhou, China
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1092 7967, GRID grid.8273.e, BioMedical Research Centre, , University of East Anglia, ; NR4 7TJ Norwich, UK
                Article
                1540
                10.1038/s41419-019-1540-2
                6453898
                30962426
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China (National Science Foundation of China);
                Award ID: 81172824
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Review Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Cell biology

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