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      Implications for educational practice of the science of learning and development

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          Self-Explanations: How Students Study and Use Examples in Learning to Solve Problems

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            Problem-Based Learning: What and How Do Students Learn?

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              Converging evidence that stereotype threat reduces working memory capacity.

              Although research has shown that priming negative stereotypes leads to lower performance among stigmatized individuals, little is understood about the cognitive mechanism that accounts for these effects. Three experiments tested the hypothesis that stereotype threat interferes with test performance because it reduces individuals' working memory capacity. Results show that priming self-relevant negative stereotypes reduces women's (Experiment 1) and Latinos' (Experiment 2) working memory capacity. The final study revealed that a reduction in working memory capacity mediates the effect of stereotype threat on women's math performance (Experiment 3). Implications for future research on stereotype threat and working memory are discussed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Applied Developmental Science
                Applied Developmental Science
                Informa UK Limited
                1088-8691
                1532-480X
                April 02 2020
                February 17 2019
                April 02 2020
                : 24
                : 2
                : 97-140
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Learning Policy Institute;
                [2 ] Stanford University;
                [3 ] American Institutes of Research
                Article
                10.1080/10888691.2018.1537791
                9884fdff-c058-4f77-a215-14f960a67e79
                © 2020

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/


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