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      The impact of homophobia, poverty, and racism on the mental health of gay and bisexual Latino men: findings from 3 US cities

      American Journal of Public Health
      American Public Health Association

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          Abstract

          This study assessed the relation between experiences of social discrimination (homophobia, racism, and financial hardship) and symptoms of psychologic distress (anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation) among self-identified gay and bisexual Latino men in the United States. Data were collected from a probability sample of 912 men (self-identified as both Latino and nonheterosexual) recruited from the venues and public social spaces identified as both Latino and gay in the cities of Miami, Los Angeles, and New York. The study showed high prevalence rates of psychologic symptoms of distress in the population of gay Latino men during the 6 months before the interview, including suicidal ideation (17% prevalence), anxiety (44%), and depressed mood (80%). In both univariate and multivariate analyses, experiences of social discrimination were strong predictors of psychologic symptoms. The mental health difficulties experienced by many gay and bisexual Latino men in the United States are directly related to a social context of oppression that leads to social alienation, low self-esteem, and symptoms of psychologic distress.

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          Embodying Inequality: A Review of Concepts, Measures, and Methods for Studying Health Consequences of Discrimination

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            HIV infection in homosexual and bisexual men 18 to 29 years of age: the San Francisco Young Men's Health Study.

            Recent studies suggest very high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection rates in some populations of younger homosexual men, but these studies may represent only particularly high-risk populations. The current study obtained population-based data on the HIV epidemic in young homosexual/bisexual men. A household survey of unmarried men 18 through 29 years of age involved a multistage probability sample of addresses in San Francisco. A follow-up interview and HIV test for men who were HIV negative at baseline were completed; the median follow-up was 8.9 months. Sixty-eight of 380 homosexual/bisexual men (17.9%) tested HIV seropositive. Sixty-three percent of men reported one or more receptive anal intercourse partners in the previous 12 months, and 41% of those men did not use condoms consistently. The HIV seroincidence rate among those seronegative at first study was 2.6% per year. HIV infection rates in young homosexual men in San Francisco are lower than those in the early 1980s; however, the rate of infection in these men, most of whom became sexually active after awareness of AIDS had become widespread, threatens to continue the epidemic in the younger generation at a level not far below that of a decade ago.
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              Seroprevalence of HIV and risk behaviors among young homosexual and bisexual men. The San Francisco/Berkeley Young Men's Survey.

              To estimate the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and risk behaviors among young homosexual and bisexual men sampled from public venues in San Francisco and Berkeley, Calif. A survey of 425 young homosexual and bisexual men sampled from 26 locations during 1992 and 1993. Participants were interviewed and blood specimens were drawn and tested for HIV, level of CD4+ T lymphocytes, and markers of hepatitis B and syphilis. Public venues in San Francisco and Berkeley, including street corners and sidewalks, dance clubs, bars, and parks. Homosexual and bisexual men aged 17 to 22 years. Prevalence of HIV infection and risk behaviors. The HIV seroprevalence was 9.4% (95% confidence interval, 6.8% to 12.6%). The prevalence of markers for hepatitis B was 19.8% (95% confidence interval, 16.1% to 23.9%), and that for syphilis was 1.0% (95% confidence interval, 0.3% to 2.4%). The HIV seroprevalence was significantly higher among African Americans (21.2%) than among other racial/ethnic groups (P = .002). Approximately one third (32.7%) of the participants reported unprotected anal intercourse, and 11.8% reported injecting drug use in the previous 6 months. At the time of interview, 70.0% of the HIV-infected men did not know that they were HIV seropositive, and only 22.5% were receiving medical care for HIV infection. The prevalence of HIV infection is high among this young population of homosexual and bisexual men, particularly among young African-American men. The high rates of HIV-related risk behaviors suggest a considerable risk for HIV transmission in this population. Prevention programs and health services need to be tailored to address the needs of a new generation of homosexual and bisexual men.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                American Journal of Public Health
                Am J Public Health
                American Public Health Association
                0090-0036
                1541-0048
                June 2001
                June 2001
                : 91
                : 6
                : 927-932
                Article
                10.2105/AJPH.91.6.927
                1446470
                11392936
                988e6e5e-2e6e-4bfc-9e78-cd534d70b7a3
                © 2001

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