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      Patient considerations in the management of ulcerative colitis – role of vedolizumab

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          Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a subtype of inflammatory bowel disease which causes inflammation of the large intestine and affects approximately 7.6–24.6 per 100,000 persons. The therapeutic goal for UC patients is inducing remission, maintaining remission, and ideally, obtaining mucosal healing. Vedolizumab, approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in May 2014 for the treatment of moderate-to-severe UC and Crohn’s disease, is a newly developed anti-integrin therapy. This review focuses on the preclinical development of vedolizumab and data from early trials, and details the results of the landmark trails that led to its approval in the USA with a specific focus on the management of UC. Additionally, data on safety and the current UC management protocols are also discussed.

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            The binding specificity and selective antagonism of vedolizumab, an anti-alpha4beta7 integrin therapeutic antibody in development for inflammatory bowel diseases.

            Vedolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the alpha(4)beta(7) integrin exclusively, and modulates inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract without inducing the systemic immunosuppression that characterizes anti-alpha(4) chain monoclonal antibodies, such as natalizumab. This unique pharmacologic profile is largely attributable to four determinants. The first determinant is the restriction of the expression of the alpha(4)beta(7) integrin to subsets of leukocytes. Vedolizumab does not bind to the majority of memory CD4(+) T lymphocytes (60%), neutrophils, and most monocytes. The highest level of vedolizumab binding is to a subset (approximately 25%) of human peripheral blood memory CD4(+) T lymphocytes that include gut-homing interleukin 17 T-helper lymphocytes. Vedolizumab also binds to eosinophils at high levels, and to naive T-helper lymphocytes, naive and memory cytotoxic T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, natural killer cells, and basophils at lower levels; vedolizumab binds to memory CD4(+) T and B lymphocytes with subnanomolar potency (EC(50) = 0.3-0.4 nM). The second determinant is binding specificity; vedolizumab binds exclusively to the alpha(4)beta(7) integrin, and not to the alpha(4)beta(1) and alpha(E)beta(7) integrins. The third determinant is selective antagonism; vedolizumab selectively inhibits adhesion of alpha(4)beta(7)-expressing cells to mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 (median inhibition concentration [IC(50)] = 0.02-0.06 microg/ml) and fibronectin (IC(50) = 0.02 microg/ml), but not vascular cell adhesion molecule 1. The fourth determinant is the gastrointestinal-specific tropism of the alpha(4)beta(7) integrin function. These pharmacologic properties of vedolizumab, in conjunction with the gastrointestinal tropism of alpha(4)beta(7) integrin function, may ultimately confer an improved risk-to-benefit profile for patients with inflammatory bowel diseases.
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              Adalimumab induction therapy for Crohn disease previously treated with infliximab: a randomized trial.

              Adalimumab, a fully human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonist, is an effective treatment for patients with Crohn disease who are naive to the chimeric TNF antagonist, infliximab. No anti-TNF agent has been evaluated prospectively in patients with Crohn disease who had responded to another anti-TNF agent and then lost that response or were intolerant of the agent. To determine whether adalimumab induces remissions more frequently than placebo in adult patients with Crohn disease who have symptoms despite infliximab therapy or who cannot take infliximab because of adverse events. 4-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (November 2004 to December 2005). 52 sites in the United States, Canada, and Europe. 325 adults 18 to 75 years of age who had a history of Crohn disease for 4 months or more that was moderate to severe at baseline (Crohn's Disease Activity Index [CDAI] score, 220 to 450 points). Patients were randomly assigned to receive induction doses of adalimumab, 160 mg and 80 mg, at weeks 0 and 2, respectively, or placebo at the same time points. The primary end point was induction of remission at week 4. Decreases in CDAI score by 70 or more and 100 or more points (secondary end points) were also measured. A total of 301 patients completed the trial. Twenty-one percent (34 of 159) of patients in the adalimumab group versus 7% (12 of 166) of those in the placebo group achieved remission at week 4 (P < 0.001). The absolute difference in clinical remission rates was 14.2 percentage points (95% CI, 6.7 to 21.6 percentage points). A 70-point response occurred at week 4 in 52% (82 of 159) of patients in the adalimumab group versus 34% (56 of 166) of patients in the placebo group (P = 0.001). The absolute difference in 70-point response rates was 17.8 percentage points (CI, 7.3 to 28.4 percentage points). Two of 159 patients in the adalimumab group and 4 of 166 patients in the placebo group discontinued treatment because of adverse events. No patients in the adalimumab group and 4 of 166 patients in the placebo group had a serious infection. The trial did not directly compare alternative active treatments and did not evaluate maintenance of response or long-term immunogenicity of adalimumab. Adalimumab induces remissions more frequently than placebo in adult patients with Crohn disease who cannot tolerate infliximab or have symptoms despite receiving infliximab therapy. For more information on adalimumab in Crohn disease, click here. ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00105300.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                19 August 2015
                : 11
                : 1235-1242
                Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Lenox Hill Hospital-NSLIJ, New York, NY, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Arun Swaminath, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Lenox Hill Hospital-NSLIJ, 100 East 75th Street, 2nd Floor, New York, NY 10075, USA, Tel +1 212 434 6963, Fax +1 212 434 6275, Email aswaminath@ 123456nshs.edu
                © 2015 Kothari et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.



                ulcerative colitis, infliximab, immunomodulator drugs, remission, mucosal healing, inflammation


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