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      Implementation of an efficient linear-optical quantum router

      1 , 2 , 3 , , 2

      Scientific Reports

      Nature Publishing Group UK

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          Abstract

          For several decades, scientists have been aware of significant benefits allowing quantum information processing technologies to surpass their classical counterparts. Recent technological development allows these benefits to be tested experimentally and in some cases also implemented in practical devices. So far the majority of experimental quantum networks was limited to peer-to-peer communications between two parties. Practical implementation of quantum communications networks, however, needs to address the problem of scalability to serve large numbers of users. Similarly to classical computer networks, their quantum counterparts would require routing protocols to direct the signal from its source to destination. Devices implementing these routing protocols are called quantum routers and have recently been subject of an intense research. In this paper, we report on experimental implementation of a linear-optical quantum router. Our device allows single-photon polarization-encoded qubits to be routed coherently into two spatial output modes depending on the state of two identical control qubits. The polarization qubit state of the routed photon is maintained during the routing operation. The success probability of our scheme can be increased up to 25% making it the most efficient linear-optical quantum router developed to this date.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Microwave photonics with superconducting quantum circuits

          In the past 20 years, impressive progress has been made both experimentally and theoretically in superconducting quantum circuits, which provide a platform for manipulating microwave photons. This emerging field of superconducting quantum microwave circuits has been driven by many new interesting phenomena in microwave photonics and quantum information processing. For instance, the interaction between superconducting quantum circuits and single microwave photons can reach the regimes of strong, ultra-strong, and even deep-strong coupling. Many higher-order effects, unusual and less familiar in traditional cavity quantum electrodynamics with natural atoms, have been experimentally observed, e.g., giant Kerr effects, multi-photon processes, and single-atom induced bistability of microwave photons. These developments may lead to improved understanding of the counterintuitive properties of quantum mechanics, and speed up applications ranging from microwave photonics to superconducting quantum information processing. In this article, we review experimental and theoretical progress in microwave photonics with superconducting quantum circuits. We hope that this global review can provide a useful roadmap for this rapidly developing field.
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            The Single-Photon Router

            We have embedded an artificial atom, a superconducting "transmon" qubit, in an open transmission line and investigated the strong scattering of incident microwave photons (\(\sim6\) GHz). When an input coherent state, with an average photon number \(N\ll1\) is on resonance with the artificial atom, we observe extinction of up to 90% in the forward propagating field. We use two-tone spectroscopy to study scattering from excited states and we observe electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We then use EIT to make a single-photon router, where we can control to what output port an incoming signal is delivered. The maximum on-off ratio is around 90% with a rise and fall time on the order of nanoseconds, consistent with theoretical expectations. The router can easily be extended to have multiple output ports and it can be viewed as a rudimentary quantum node, an important step towards building quantum information networks.
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              Efficient routing of single photons by one atom and a microtoroidal cavity

              Single photons from a coherent input are efficiently redirected to a separate output by way of a fiber-coupled microtoroidal cavity interacting with individual Cesium atoms. By operating in an overcoupled regime for the input-output to a tapered fiber, our system functions as a quantum router with high efficiency for photon sorting. Single photons are reflected and excess photons transmitted, as confirmed by observations of photon antibunching (bunching) for the reflected (transmitted) light. Our photon router is robust against large variations of atomic position and input power, with the observed photon antibunching persisting for intracavity photon number 0.03 \lesssim n \lesssim 0.7.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                k.lemr@upol.cz
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                7 September 2018
                7 September 2018
                2018
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2097 3545, GRID grid.5633.3, Faculty of Physics, , Adam Mickiewicz University, ; PL-61-614 Poznań, Poland
                [2 ]RCPTM, Joint Laboratory of Optics of Palacký University and Institute of Physics of Czech Academy of Sciences, 17. listopadu 12, 772 07 Olomouc, Czech Republic
                [3 ]Institute of Physics of Czech Academy of Sciences, Joint Laboratory of Optics of Palacký University and Institute of Physics of Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, 17. listopadu 50A, 772 07 Olomouc, Czech Republic
                Article
                31273
                10.1038/s41598-018-31273-0
                6128919
                30194419
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100001823, Ministerstvo Školství, Mládeže a Tělovýchovy (Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports);
                Award ID: CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000754
                Award ID: CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_019/0000754
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100004281, Narodowe Centrum Nauki (National Science Centre);
                Award ID: DEC-2015/19/B/ST2/01999
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100001824, Grantová Agentura České Republiky (Grant Agency of the Czech Republic);
                Award ID: 17-10003S
                Award Recipient :
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