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      Injury during adolescence leads to sex-specific executive function deficits in adulthood in a pre-clinical model of mild traumatic brain injury

      , , , ,

      Behavioural Brain Research

      Elsevier BV

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          Varieties of impulsivity.

           J Evenden (1999)
          The concept of impulsivity covers a wide range of "actions that are poorly conceived, prematurely expressed, unduly risky, or inappropriate to the situation and that often result in undesirable outcomes". As such it plays an important role in normal behaviour, as well as, in a pathological form, in many kinds of mental illness such as mania, personality disorders, substance abuse disorders and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Although evidence from psychological studies of human personality suggests that impulsivity may be made up of several independent factors, this has not made a major impact on biological studies of impulsivity. This may be because there is little unanimity as to which these factors are. The present review summarises evidence for varieties of impulsivity from several different areas of research: human psychology, psychiatry and animal behaviour. Recently, a series of psychopharmacological studies has been carried out by the present author and colleagues using methods proposed to measure selectively different aspects of impulsivity. The results of these studies suggest that several neurochemical mechanisms can influence impulsivity, and that impulsive behaviour has no unique neurobiological basis. Consideration of impulsivity as the result of several different, independent factors which interact to modulate behaviour may provide better insight into the pathology than current hypotheses based on serotonergic underactivity.
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            The 5-choice serial reaction time task: behavioural pharmacology and functional neurochemistry.

            The developmental history and application of the 5-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) for measuring effects of drugs and other manipulations on attentional performance (and stimulus control) in rats is reviewed. The 5CSRTT has been used for measuring effects of systemic drug treatments and also central manipulations such as neurochemical lesions on various aspects of attentional control, including sustained, selective and divided attention--and is relevant to the definition of neural systems of attention and applications to human disorders such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and Alzheimer's disease. The 5CSRTT is implemented in a specially designed operant chamber with multiple response locations ('nine-hole box') using food reinforcers to maintain performance on baseline sessions (about 100 trials) at criterion levels of accuracy and trials completed. The 5CSRTT can be used for measuring various aspects of attentional control over performance with its main measures of accuracy, premature responding, correct response latencies and latency to collect earned food pellets. The data reviewed include studies mainly of systemic and intra-cerebral effects of adrenoceptor, dopamine receptor, serotoninergic receptor and cholinergic receptor agents. These are compared with investigations of effects of selective chemical neurotoxins and excitotoxins applied to discrete parts of the forebrain, in order to define the neural and neurochemical substrates of attentional function. Furthermore, these results are integrated with findings from in vivo microdialysis in freely moving rats or metabolic studies. The monoaminergic and cholinergic systems appear to play separable roles in different aspects of performance controlled by the 5CSRTT, in neural systems centred on the prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex and striatum. These conclusions are considered in the methodological and theoretical context of other psychopharmacological studies of attention in animals and humans.
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              Kinetics of human soluble and membrane-bound catechol O-methyltransferase: a revised mechanism and description of the thermolabile variant of the enzyme.

              Human soluble (S) and membrane-bound (MB) catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT, EC 2.1.1.6) enzymes have been expressed at sufficiently high levels in Escherichia coli and in baculovirus-infected insect cells to allow kinetic characterization of the enzyme forms. The use of tight-binding inhibitors such as entacapone enabled the estimation of actual enzyme concentrations and, thereby, comparison of velocity parameters, substrate selectivity, and regioselectivity of the methylation of both enzyme forms. Kinetics of the methylation reaction of dopamine, (-)-noradrenaline, L-dopa, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid was studied in detail. Here, the catalytic number (Vmax) of S-COMT was somewhat higher than that of MB-COMT for all four substrates. The Km values varied considerably, depending on both substrate and enzyme form. S-COMT showed about 15 times higher Km values for catecholamines than MB-COMT. The distinctive difference between the enzyme forms was also the higher affinity of MB-COMT for the coenzyme S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet). The average dissociation constants Ks were 3.4 and 20.2 microM for MB-COMT and S-COMT, respectively. Comparison between the kinetic results and the atomic structure of S-COMT is presented, and a revised mechanism for the reaction cycle is discussed. Two recently published human COMT cDNA sequences differed in the position of S-COMT amino acid 108, the residue being either Val-108 [Lundström et al. (1991) DNA Cell. Biol. 10, 181-189] or Met-108 [Bertocci et al. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88, 1416-1420].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Behavioural Brain Research
                Behavioural Brain Research
                Elsevier BV
                01664328
                March 2021
                March 2021
                : 402
                : 113067
                Article
                10.1016/j.bbr.2020.113067
                © 2021

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