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      Long-Term Enalapril Therapy in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure on a Low-Protein Diet

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          The effect of enalapril (5–10 mg/day) on the progression of chronic renal failure (CRF) was compared with that of metoprolol (40–120 mg/day) in 28 patients for 24 months in a prospective study. Throughout the study, there was no significant difference between the 2 groups in protein intake and urinary sodium excretion. But there was a significant difference between the 2 groups in diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure at 6 months. In the serum creatinine level, there was a significant difference between the 2 groups at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. In creatinine clearance, there was a significant difference between the 2 groups at 24 months. In addition, the progression of CRF was significantly faster in the metoprolol group than the enalapril group as estimated from the slope of creatinine clearance (p < 0.05) and the slope of glomerular filtration rate (p < 0.0005). In urinary protein excretion, there was a significant difference between the 2 groups at 6 and 18 months (p < 0.05). These findings indicate that enalapril has a suppressive effect on the progression of CRF and also has an antiproteinuric effect by a mechanism independent of its antihypertensive effect.

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          Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and renal protection. An assessment of implications for therapy.

          The role of hypertension in the pathogenesis of renal damage is a subject of both historical interest and current investigation. Because of the difficulty associated with studying the pathophysiologic role of glomerular injury in systemic hypertension, experimental models have provided much of the data in this field. The mechanisms leading to glomerular injury are complex and not fully elucidated. Mesangial and endothelial cell injury are thought to be important pathophysiologic mechanisms in the renal injury associated with hypertension. One hypothesis suggests that glomerular hypertension (ie, a hemodynamic event) is the primary pathogenetic mechanism, but another supports the notion that glomerular hypertrophy (ie, abnormal growth-related events) contributes to injury. The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system may play an important pathogenetic role in end-stage renal disease. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition has been shown to arrest the progression of renal injury in animal models. Although the clinical database is incomplete, the findings of anecdotal reports and short-term studies suggest that ACE inhibition may preserve renal function in patients with scleroderma renal crisis, reduce proteinuria in patients with diabetic nephropathy, and normalize renal hemodynamics in patients with a variety of renal diseases. The beneficial effects of ACE inhibition may be due to both hemodynamic (eg, reduction in glomerular capillary and intraglomerular pressures) and nonhemodynamic (eg, potassium-sparing and reduction in mesangial proliferation) mechanisms. The precise role of ACE inhibitors in the prevention of renal damage awaits the results of ongoing long-term, double-blind clinical studies. Nevertheless, ACE inhibition may be an appropriate therapeutic alternative in the hypertensive patient whose renal injury is progressing despite aggressive antihypertensive therapy.
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            Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and progression of nondiabetic chronic renal disease


              Author and article information

              S. Karger AG
              June 1998
              27 May 1998
              : 79
              : 2
              : 148-153
              Department of Internal Medicine, Toride Kyodo General Hospital, Toride-City, Ibaraki, Japan
              45017 Nephron 1998;79:148–153
              © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

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              Page count
              Figures: 6, Tables: 3, References: 14, Pages: 6
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/45017
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