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      AoBck1 and AoMkk1 Are Necessary to Maintain Cell Wall Integrity, Vegetative Growth, Conidiation, Stress Resistance, and Pathogenicity in the Nematode-Trapping Fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora


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          The cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway is composed of three mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), Bck1, Mkk1/2, and Slt2, and is one of the main signaling pathways for fungal pathogenesis, cell wall synthesis, and integrity maintenance. In this study, we characterized orthologs of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bck1 and Mkk1 in the nematode-trapping (NT) fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora by multiple phenotypic comparison, and the regulation of conidiation and cell wall synthesis was analyzed using real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Both Δ AoBck1 and Δ AoMkk1 mutants showed severe defects in vegetative growth, cell nucleus number, and stress resistance. Both the mutants were unable to produce spores, and the transcription of several genes associated with sporulation and cell wall biosynthesis was markedly downregulated during the conidiation stage. Further, cell walls of the Δ AoBck1 and Δ AoMkk1 mutants were severely damaged, and the Woronin body failed to respond to cellular damage. In particular, the mutants lost the ability to produce mycelial traps for nematode predation. Taken together, AoBck1 and AoMkk1 play a conserved role in mycelial growth and development, CWI, conidiation, multi-stress tolerance, trap formation, and pathogenicity. We highlighted the role of AoBck1 and AoMkk1 in regulating the Woronin body response to cellular damage and cell nucleus development in A. oligospora.

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          Most cited references45

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          Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method.

          The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated control. The 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method is a convenient way to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments. The purpose of this report is to present the derivation, assumptions, and applications of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. In addition, we present the derivation and applications of two variations of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method that may be useful in the analysis of real-time, quantitative PCR data. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).
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            Cell wall integrity signaling in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

            The yeast cell wall is a highly dynamic structure that is responsible for protecting the cell from rapid changes in external osmotic potential. The wall is also critical for cell expansion during growth and morphogenesis. This review discusses recent advances in understanding the various signal transduction pathways that allow cells to monitor the state of the cell wall and respond to environmental challenges to this structure. The cell wall integrity signaling pathway controlled by the small G-protein Rho1 is principally responsible for orchestrating changes to the cell wall periodically through the cell cycle and in response to various forms of cell wall stress. This signaling pathway acts through direct control of wall biosynthetic enzymes, transcriptional regulation of cell wall-related genes, and polarization of the actin cytoskeleton. However, additional signaling pathways interface both with the cell wall integrity signaling pathway and with the actin cytoskeleton to coordinate polarized secretion with cell wall expansion. These include Ca(2+) signaling, phosphatidylinositide signaling at the plasma membrane, sphingoid base signaling through the Pkh1 and -2 protein kinases, Tor kinase signaling, and pathways controlled by the Rho3, Rho4, and Cdc42 G-proteins.
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              Genetic control of asexual sporulation in filamentous fungi.

              Asexual sporulation (conidiation) in the ascomycetous filamentous fungi involves the formation of conidia, formed on specialized structures called conidiophores. Conidiation in filamentous fungi involves many common themes including spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression, specialized cellular differentiation, intra-/inter-cellular communications, and response to environmental factors. The commencement, progression and completion of conidiation are regulated by multiple positive and negative genetic elements that direct expression of genes required for proper vegetative growth and the assembly of the conidiophore and spore maturation. Light is one of the key environmental factors affecting conidiation. Developmental mechanisms in Aspergillus nidulans and Neurospora crassa have been intensively studied, leading to important outlines. Here, we summarize genetic control of conidiation including the light-responding mechanisms in the two model fungi. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                22 June 2021
                : 12
                : 649582
                [1] 1State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-Resources in Yunnan, and Key Laboratory for Southwest Microbial Diversity of the Ministry of Education, Yunnan University , Kunming, China
                [2] 2School of Resources, Environment and Chemistry, Chuxiong Normal University , Chuxiong, China
                [3] 3School of Life Science, Yunnan University , Kunming, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Hari S. Misra, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India

                Reviewed by: Vijay Pancholi, The Ohio State University, United States; Yen-Ping Hsueh, Academia Sinica, Taiwan; Gisele LaPointe, University of Guelph, Canada

                *Correspondence: Jinkui Yang, jinkui960@ 123456ynu.edu.cn

                This article was submitted to Microbial Physiology and Metabolism, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Copyright © 2021 Xie, Yang, Jiang, Bai, Zhu, Zhu, Zhang and Yang.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 05 January 2021
                : 09 April 2021
                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 45, Pages: 12, Words: 7713
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China 10.13039/501100001809
                Award ID: 31960556
                Award ID: U1402265
                Funded by: Applied Basic Research Foundation of Yunnan Province 10.13039/100007471
                Award ID: 202001BB050004
                Funded by: Yunnan Local Colleges Applied Basic Research Project
                Award ID: 2017FH001-030
                Original Research

                Microbiology & Virology
                arthrobotrys oligospora,cell wall integrity pathway,mitogen-activated protein kinases bck1 and mkk1,cell wall damage,woronin body,trap formation


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