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      Profiling and identification of chemical components of Shenshao Tablet and its absorbed components in rats by comprehensive HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS n analysis

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          Abstract

          Shenshao Tablet (SST), prepared from Paeoniae Radix Alba (PRA) and total ginsenoside of Ginseng Stems and Leaves (GSL), is a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation prescribed to treat coronary heart disease. However, its chemical composition and the components that can migrate into blood potentially exerting the therapeutic effects have rarely been elucidated. We developed an HPLC/DAD/ESI-MS n approach aiming to comprehensively profile and identify both the chemical components of SST and its absorbed ingredients (and metabolites) in rat plasma and urine. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent Eclipse XDB C 18 column using acetonitrile/0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase. MS detection was conducted in both negative and positive ESI modes to yield more structure information. Comparison with reference compounds (t R, MS n), interpretation of the fragmentation pathways, and searching of in-house database, were utilized for more reliable structure elucidation. A total of 82 components, including 21 monoterpene glycosides, four galloyl glucoses, two phenols from PRA, and 55 ginsenosides from GSL, were identified or tentatively characterized from the 70% ethanolic extract of SST. Amongst them, seven and 24 prototype compounds could be detectable in the plasma and urine samples, respectively, after oral administration of an SST extract (4 g·kg –1) in rats. No metabolites were observed in the rat samples. The findings of this work first unveiled the chemical complexity of SST and its absorbed components, which would be beneficial to understanding the therapeutic basis and quality control of SST.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Saponins in the genus Panax L. (Araliaceae): a systematic review of their chemical diversity.

          The Panax genus is a crucial source of natural medicines that has benefited human health for a long time. Three valuable medicinal herbs, namely Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolius, and Panax notoginseng, have received considerable interest due to their extensive application in clinical therapy, healthcare products, and as foods and food additives world-wide. Panax species are known to contain abundant levels of saponins, also dubbed ginsenosides, which refer to a series of dammarane or oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides. These saponins exhibit modulatory effects to the central nervous system and beneficial effects to patients suffering from cardiovascular diseases, and also have anti-diabetic and anti-tumor properties. To the end of 2012, at least 289 saponins were reported from eleven different Panax species. This comprehensive review describes the advances in the phytochemistry of the genus Panax for the period 1963-2012, based on the 134 cited references. The reported saponins can be classified into protopanaxadiol, protopanaxatriol, octillol, oleanolic acid, C17 side-chain varied, and miscellaneous subtypes, according to structural differences in sapogenins. The investigational history of Panax is also reviewed, with special attention being paid to the structural features of the six different subtypes, together with their (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic characteristics which are useful for determining their structures and absolute configuration.
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            Chemical profiling of Radix Paeoniae evaluated by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/photo-diode-array/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

            In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography/photo-diode-array/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-PDA-QTOFMS) based chemical profiling method was established for rapid global quality evaluation of Radix Paeoniae. By virtue of the high resolution, high speed of UPLC and the accurate mass measurement of TOFMS, a total of 40 components including 29 monoterpene glycosides, 8 galloyl glucoses and 3 phenolic compounds were simultaneously separated within 12min, and identified through the matching of empirical molecular formulae with those of published components in the in-house library, and were further elucidated by adjusted lower energy collision-induced dissociation (CID) mass spectra. Among forty components, five monoterpene glycoside sulfonates were identified as novel components. The established method was successfully applied to rapidly and globally compare the quality of Radix Paeoniae Alba and Radix Paeoniae Rubra, two post-harvesting handled products of Radix Paeoniae. Together with paeoniflorin sulfonate, five newly assigned monoterpene glycoside sulfonates were characteristic markers to detect non-official sulfur dioxide gas fumigated Radix Paeoniae Alba samples. It could be concluded that UPLC-PDA-QTOFMS based chemical profiling is a powerful approach for the global quality evaluation of Radix Paeoniae as well as other herbal medicines.
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              A strategy for efficient discovery of new natural compounds by integrating orthogonal column chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis: Its application in Panax ginseng, Panax quinquefolium and Panax notoginseng to characterize 437 potential new ginsenosides.

              To discover new natural compounds from herbal medicines tends to be more and more difficult. In this paper, a strategy integrating orthogonal column chromatography and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis was proposed, and was applied for rapid discovery of new ginsenosides from Panax ginseng (PG), Panax quinquefolium (PQ), and Panax notoginseng (PN). The ginsenosides extracts were fractionated by MCI gel×silica gel orthogonal column chromatography. The fractions were then separated on a C(18) HPLC column, eluted with a three-component mobile phase (CH(3)CN/CH(3)OH/3mM CH(3)COONH(4)H(2)O), and detected by electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. The structures of unknown ginsenosides were elucidated by analyzing negative and positive ion mass spectra, which provided complementary information on the sapogenins and oligosaccharide chains, respectively. A total of 623 comprising 437 potential new ginsenosides were characterized from the ethanol extracts of PG, PQ and PN. New acylations, diversified saccharide chains and C-17 side chains constituted novelty of the newly identified ginsenosides. An interpretation guideline was proposed for structural characterization of unknown ginsenosides by LC/MS. To confirm reliability of this strategy, two targeted unknown trace ginsenosides were obtained in pure form by LC/MS-guided isolation. Based on extensive NMR spectroscopic analysis and other techniques, they were identified as 3-O-[6-O-(E)-butenoyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1,2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-20(S)-protopanaxadiol-20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1,6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (named ginsenoside IV) and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1,2)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3β,12β,20(S),24(R)-tetra hydroxy-dammar-25-ene-20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl(1,6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (ginsenoside V), respectively. The fully established structures were consistent with the MS-oriented structural elucidation. This study expanded our understanding on ginsenosides of Panax species, and the proposed strategy was proved efficient and reliable in the discovery of new minor compounds from herbal extracts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CJNM
                Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
                Elsevier
                1875-5364
                20 October 2018
                : 16
                : 10
                : 791-800
                Affiliations
                1Department of Pharmacy, Institute of Hematology and Blood Disease Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Tianjin 300020, China
                2Tianjin State Key Laboratory of Modern Chinese Medicine, Tianjin University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Tianjin 300193, China
                3State Key Laboratory of Natural and Biomimetic Drugs, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing 100191, China
                Author notes
                *Corresponding authors: Tel/Fax: 86-22-59596163, YANG Wen-Zhi, E-mail: ywz_0504@ 123456163.com ; GUO De-An, gda5958@ 123456163.com

                ΔThese two authors contributed to this work equally.

                These authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

                Article
                S1875-5364(18)30119-5
                10.1016/S1875-5364(18)30119-5
                Copyright © 2018 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
                Funding
                Funded by: Tianjin Municipal Education Commission Research Project
                Award ID: 2017ZD07
                This work was financially supported by Tianjin Municipal Education Commission Research Project (No. 2017ZD07).

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