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      Anti-inflammatory effects of exercise: role in diabetes and cardiovascular disease

      European Journal of Clinical Investigation
      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Muscles, exercise and obesity: skeletal muscle as a secretory organ.

          During the past decade, skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ. Accordingly, we have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibres and exert either autocrine, paracrine or endocrine effects should be classified as myokines. The finding that the muscle secretome consists of several hundred secreted peptides provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs, such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, bones and brain. However, some myokines exert their effects within the muscle itself. Thus, myostatin, LIF, IL-6 and IL-7 are involved in muscle hypertrophy and myogenesis, whereas BDNF and IL-6 are involved in AMPK-mediated fat oxidation. IL-6 also appears to have systemic effects on the liver, adipose tissue and the immune system, and mediates crosstalk between intestinal L cells and pancreatic islets. Other myokines include the osteogenic factors IGF-1 and FGF-2; FSTL-1, which improves the endothelial function of the vascular system; and the PGC-1α-dependent myokine irisin, which drives brown-fat-like development. Studies in the past few years suggest the existence of yet unidentified factors, secreted from muscle cells, which may influence cancer cell growth and pancreas function. Many proteins produced by skeletal muscle are dependent upon contraction; therefore, physical inactivity probably leads to an altered myokine response, which could provide a potential mechanism for the association between sedentary behaviour and many chronic diseases.
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            Inflammatory cytokines and the risk to develop type 2 diabetes: results of the prospective population-based European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study.

            A subclinical inflammatory reaction has been shown to precede the onset of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes. We therefore examined prospectively the effects of the central inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on the development of type 2 diabetes. We designed a nested case-control study within the prospective population-based European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study including 27,548 individuals. Case subjects were defined to be those who were free of type 2 diabetes at baseline and subsequently developed type 2 diabetes during a 2.3-year follow-up period. A total of 192 cases of incident type 2 diabetes were identified and matched with 384 non-disease-developing control subjects. IL-6 and TNF-alpha levels were found to be elevated in participants with incident type 2 diabetes, whereas IL-1beta plasma levels did not differ between the groups. Analysis of single cytokines revealed IL-6 as an independent predictor of type 2 diabetes after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), sports, smoking status, educational attainment, alcohol consumption, and HbA(1c) (4th vs. the 1st quartile: odds ratio [OR] 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.5). The association between TNF-alpha and future type 2 diabetes was no longer significant after adjustment for BMI or WHR. Interestingly, combined analysis of the cytokines revealed a significant interaction between IL-1beta and IL-6. In the fully adjusted model, participants with detectable levels of IL-1beta and elevated levels of IL-6 had an independently increased risk to develop type 2 diabetes (3.3, 1.7-6.8), whereas individuals with increased concentrations of IL-6 but undetectable levels of IL-1beta had no significantly increased risk, both compared with the low-level reference group. These results were confirmed in an analysis including only individuals with HbA(1c) <5.8% at baseline. Our data suggest that the pattern of circulating inflammatory cytokines modifies the risk for type 2 diabetes. In particular, a combined elevation of IL-1beta and IL-6, rather than the isolated elevation of IL-6 alone, independently increases the risk of type 2 diabetes. These data strongly support the hypothesis that a subclinical inflammatory reaction has a role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes.
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              The role of exercise and PGC1alpha in inflammation and chronic disease.

              Inadequate physical activity is linked to many chronic diseases. But the mechanisms that tie muscle activity to health are unclear. The transcriptional coactivator PGC1alpha has recently been shown to regulate several exercise-associated aspects of muscle function. We propose that this protein controls muscle plasticity, suppresses a broad inflammatory response and mediates the beneficial effects of exercise.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                European Journal of Clinical Investigation
                Eur J Clin Invest
                Wiley-Blackwell
                00142972
                August 2017
                August 2017
                : 47
                : 8
                : 600-611
                Article
                10.1111/eci.12781
                98f388b8-8608-4d07-85cb-b08868ccba36
                © 2017

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1


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