Epoetin alfa is the cornerstone of anemia therapy in patients with end-stage renal disease. In addition to stimulating erythropoiesis, Epoetin alfa has been demonstrated to affect hemostasis. Such effects may be important because patients with chronic renal failure have a bleeding diathesis that is multifactorial in origin. Therefore, a computer literature search on the relationship between Epoetin alfa therapy for anemia in patients with end-stage renal disease and platelets, coagulation, coagulation inhibitors, and fibrinolysis was performed. All articles and abstracts reporting original data in the English language on Epoetin alfa and its effect on hemostasis were reviewed. The literature suggests that the effects of Epoetin alfa on the coagulation cascade are of minimal clinical importance. However, Epoetin alfa transiently increases the number of circulating platelets and improves platelet function, and these effects are associated with a return of the bleeding time towards normal.