Multiple long-term conditions (MLTCs) are influenced in extent and nature by social determinants of health. Few studies have explored associations between household tenure and different definitions of MLTCs. This study aimed to examine associations between household tenure and MLTCs amongst working-age adults (16 to 64 years old, inclusive). This cross-sectional study used the 2019–2020 wave of an innovative dataset that links administrative data across health and local government for residents of a deprived borough in East London. Three definitions of MLTCs were operationalised based on a list of 38 conditions. Multilevel logistic regression models were built for each outcome and adjusted for a range of health and sociodemographic factors. Compared to working-age owner-occupiers, odds of basic MLTCs were 36% higher for social housing tenants and 19% lower for private renters (OR 1.36; 95% CI 1.30–1.42; p < 0.001 and OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.77–0.84, p < 0.001, respectively). Results were consistent across different definitions of MLTCs, although associations were stronger for social housing tenants with physical-mental MLTCs. This study finds strong evidence that household tenure is associated with MLTCs, emphasising the importance of understanding household-level determinants of health. Resources to prevent and tackle MLTCs among working-age adults could be differentially targeted by tenure type.