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      Analysis of sex-related differences in external load demands on beach handball Translated title: Análise das diferenças relacionadas ao sexo nas demandas de carga externa no handebol de praia

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          Abstract

          Abstract The purpose of the present study was to analyze the sex-related differences in beach handball workload. A total sample of 105 handballers (male, n=50; female, n=55) belonging to six U’16 teams, seven U’18 teams and eight senior teams were monitored in the final round of 2018-2019 beach handball tournament celebrated during 3-days congested-fixture design. The external load variables Steps, Jumps, Player Load, Total Impacts (>2G) and Total Impacts per Intensities (very low, 2-4G; low, 4-6G; moderate, 6-8G; high, 8-10G; very high, >10G) through WIMUTM inertial devices. Statistical analysis was composed by t-test and Cohen’s d for anthropometrical variables and by MANOVA and omega partial square for sex and categories related differences. Greater values in male handballers were found in height, weight and age in each categories (U’16: p<0.05; d=0.50-2.26; U’18: p<0.05; d=0.95-2.21; senior: p<0.05; d=1.01-1.99), except in age in U’18 (p=0.97; d=0.01). Respect to external workload, differences were found related to category (p<0.01; ωp²= 0.02-0.05, small) and sex (p<0.01; ωp²= 0.04-0.21, small to high), except in Steps (p=0.47; ωp²= 0.00), finding the greatest sex-related differences in U’16 category. From the differences found in anthropometrical characteristics and external workload, their evaluation during competition allows designing specific training sessions with the purpose of sports performance enhancement in beach handball.

          Translated abstract

          Resumo Objetivou-se analisar as diferenças relacionadas ao sexo na carga de trabalho de handebol de praia. Uma amostra total de 105 jogadores de handebol (masculino, n = 50; feminino, n = 55) pertencentes a seis equipes sub-16, sete equipes sub-18 e oito equipes seniores foi monitorada na rodada final do torneio de handebol de praia 2018-2019 durante 3 dias de projeto. As variáveis de carga externa Etapas, Saltos, Carga do jogador, Impactos totais (> 2G) e Impactos totais por intensidade (muito baixo, 2-4G; baixo, 4-6G; moderado, 6-8G; alto, 8-10G; muito alto,> 10G) foram mensurados por meio de dispositivos inerciais WIMUTM. A análise estatística foi composta pelo teste t, d de Cohen e MANOVA. Maiores valores nos handebolistas masculinos foram encontrados em estatura, massa corporal e idade em cada categoria (U'16: p <0,05; d = 0,50-2,26; U'18: p <0,05; d = 0,95-2,21; sénior: p <0,05 ; d = 1,01-1,99), exceto na idade nos U'18 (p = 0,97; d = 0,01). No que diz respeito à carga de trabalho externa, foram encontradas diferenças relacionadas à categoria (p <0,01; ωp² = 0,02-0,05, pequeno) e sexo (p <0,01; ωp² = 0,04-0,21, pequeno a alto), exceto nas etapas (p = 0,47; ωp² = 0,00), encontrando as maiores diferenças relacionadas ao sexo na categoria U'16. A partir das diferenças encontradas nas características antropométricas e na carga de trabalho externa, sua avaliação durante a competição permite projetar sessões de treinamento específicas com o objetivo de melhorar o desempenho esportivo no handebol de praia.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Accelerometer and GPS-derived running loads and injury risk in elite Australian footballers.

          The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between overall physical workload (global positioning systems [GPS]/accelerometer) measures and injury risk in elite Australian football players (n = 46) during a season. Workload data and (intrinsic) injury incidence were monitored across preseason and in-season (18 matches) phases. Multiple regression was used to compare cumulative (1-, 2-, 3-, and 4-weekly loads) and absolute change (from previous-to-current week) in workloads between injured and uninjured players for all GPS/accelerometer-derived variables: total distance, V1 distance (total distance above individual's aerobic threshold speed), sprint distance, force load, velocity load, and relative velocity change. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated to determine the relative injury risk. Cumulative loads showed the strongest relationship with greater intrinsic injury risk. During preseason, 3-weekly distance (OR = 5.489, p = 0.008) and 3-weekly sprint distance (OR = 3.667, p = 0.074) were most indicative of greater injury risk. During in-season, 3-weekly force load (OR = 2.530, p = 0.031) and 4-weekly relative velocity change (OR = 2.244, p = 0.035) were associated with greater injury risk. No differences in injury risk between years of Australian Football League system experience and GPS/accelerometer data were seen. From an injury risk (prevention) perspective, these findings support consideration of several GPS/accelerometer running load variables in Australian football players. In particular, cumulative weekly loads should be closely monitored, with 3-weekly loads most indicative of a greater injury risk across both seasonal phases.
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            On-court demands of elite handball, with special reference to playing positions.

            The aim of this review is to provide the first comprehensive analysis of the various technical and physical on-court demands in elite male handball with respect to playing positions. While low-intensity activities such as standing still and walking represent the greater proportion of playing time (up to ~70 %), handball can be considered an intense activity for all players, especially because of the large number of repeated high-intensity actions occurring throughout the game (e.g., jumps, sprints, changes of direction, duels, contacts). Additionally, the substantial number of body contacts likely increases neuromuscular load, both during and following games. However, the average running pace (53 ± 7 to 90 ± 9 m·min(-1)) during handball games tends to be lower than in the majority of other team sports, while blood lactate and heart rate responses tend to be similar and slightly lower, respectively. Behind these team-average data, the substantial variations in technical and physiological demands between the different positions have been overlooked in the literature. Whether physical fatigue actually occurs during games is still unclear since, in the majority of studies, games were not examined under actual competitive situations. We contend that, in practice, appropriate player rotations may allow players to maintain an optimal physical performance level or, at least, limit a possible drop in physical/playing efficiency. Future research should essentially focus on the technical and physiological responses during games in relation to specific collective systems of play and individual playing roles. The occurrence of player position-specific fatigue should also be better examined when considering individual playing time and rotation strategies.
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              Anthropometric and performance measures for the development of a talent detection and identification model in youth handball.

              The first part of this study examined in which basic morphological and fitness measures Under-14 (n=34) and Under-16 (n=47) male youth handball players differ from reference samples of the same age (n=430 and n=570, respectively). To help develop a talent identification model, the second part of the study investigated which specific morphological and performance measures describe differences between elite (n=18) and non-elite (n=29) Under-16 youth handball players. The results showed that Under-16 handball players were significantly taller than the reference group; this was not the case in the Under-14 age group. Physical fitness in handball players was significantly better than in the reference groups. Multivariate analysis of covariance (maturation and chronological age as covariates) showed that the Under-16 elite players were heavier and had greater muscle circumferences than their non-elite peers. Elite players scored significantly better on strength, speed and agility, and cardiorespiratory endurance but not on balance, upper limb speed, flexibility or upper body muscular endurance. Maturation was a significant covariate in anthropometric measures but not in physical performance. Discriminant analysis between elite and non-elite players revealed that height, running speed, and agility are important parameters for talent identification. Specific anthropometric measures, in addition to some performance measures, are useful for talent identification in youth handball.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                rbcdh
                Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano
                Rev. bras. cineantropom. desempenho hum.
                Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Florianópolis, SC, Brazil )
                1415-8426
                1980-0037
                2020
                : 22
                Affiliations
                orgnameUniversity of Extremadura orgdiv1Faculty of Sports Sciences orgdiv2Department of Didactics of Body Expression, Plastic and Music Spain
                Article
                S1980-00372020000100353 S1980-0037(20)02200000353
                10.1590/1980-0037.2020v22e71448
                9915a058-27f2-4970-92ef-c4393ae82c4d

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 30, Pages: 0
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