Background: According to previous studies, postdialysis urea rebound (PDUR) is achieved within 30–90 min, leading to an overestimation of Kt/V of between 15 and 40% in 3- to 5-hour dialysis. The purpose of the study was to assess the impact of PDUR on the urea reduction ratio (URR), Kt/V and normal protein catabolic rate (nPCR) with long 8-hour slow hemodialysis. Methods: This study was performed in 18 patients (13 males/5 females), 62.5 ± 11.7 years of age, hemodialyzed for 3–265 months. Initial nephropathies were: 3 diabetes; 2 polycystic kidney disease; 3 interstitial nephritis; 2 nephrosclerosis; 3 chronic glomerulonephritis, and 5 undetermined. Residual renal function was negligible. The dialysis sessions were performed using 1- to 1.8-m<sup>2</sup> cellulosic dialyzers during 8 h, 3 times a week. Blood flow was 220 ml/min, dialysate flow 500 ml/min, acetate or bicarbonate buffer was used. Serial measurements of the urea concentration were obtained before dialysis, immediately after dialysis (low flow at t = 0), and at 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 90 and 120 min, and before the next session. The low-flow method was used to evaluate the access recirculation, second-generation Daugirdas formulas for Kt/V, and Watson formulas for total body water volume estimation. The difference between the expected urea generation (UG) and urea measured after dialysis (global PDUR) defines net PDUR (n-PDUR). Results: The n-PDUR usually became stable after 58 ± 25 (30–90) min. Its mean value was 17 ± 10% of the 30-second low-flow postdialysis urea (3.9 ± 2 mmol/l). This small postdialysis urea value and the importance of UG in comparison with shorter dialysis justify the use of n-PDUR. Ignoring n-PDUR would lead to a significant 4% overestimation (p < 0.001) of the URR (79 ± 7 vs. 76 ± 8%), 12% of Kt/V (1.9 ± 0.4 to 1.7 ± 0.38) and 4% of the nPCR (1.1 ± 0.3 to 1.05 ± 0.3). n-PDUR correlated negatively with postdialysis urea (r = 0.45 p = 0.05), positively with URR (r = 0.31 p = 0.01) and Kt/V (r = 0.3 p = 0.03) but not with K, and negatively with the urea distribution volume (r = 0.33 p = 0.05). Mean total recirculation, ultrafiltration rate, predialysis urea levels and urea clearance did not correlate with n-PDUR. Conclusion: We found a significant PDUR in long-slow hemodialysis after a mean of 1 h after dialysis. This PDUR has a less important impact upon dialysis delivery estimation than short 3- to 5-hour hemodialysis, especially for the lower Kt/V or URR ranges. This is explained by the low-flux, high-efficiency, and long-term dialysis. Its inter-individual variability incites us to calculate PDUR on an individual basis.