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      Prevalence of Underweight and Its Associated Factors among Reproductive Age Group Women in Ethiopia: Analysis of the 2016 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey Data

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          Underweight is defined as being below the healthy weight range. Underweight in reproductive age group women not only affects women but also increases the risk of an intergenerational cycle of malnutrition and child mortality. Various factors are linked with underweight among women. However, studies on the prevalence of underweight and its associated factors among women are limited in Ethiopia. Hence, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of underweight and its associated factors among reproductive age group women in Ethiopia.


          For this study, data were drawn from the 2016 Ethiopian demographic and health survey (EDHS). From the total, 15,683 women participants of the 2016 EDHS; a subsample of 2,848 participants aged 15–49 years who had a complete response to all variables of interest were selected and utilized for analysis. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20 software program. Pearson's chi-squared test was used to assess the frequency distribution of underweight and is presented with different sociodemographic characteristics. Logistic regression models were applied for analysis. A two-sided p value of less than 0.05 was used to declare a statistically significant association between the independent variables and underweight among women.


          The prevalence of underweight among reproductive age group women in Ethiopia was 17.6%. The majority, 78.3% of underweight women, were rural dwellers. The odds of being underweight was higher among the young aged women, among those residing in rural areas, in those with higher educational status, and in those who have one or more children. On the other hand, the odds of underweight among respondents living in Benishangul, SNNPR, and Addis Ababa were less compared to those living in Dire Dawa. Similarly, the odds of underweight among participants with a higher level of husband or partner educational status and among those who chew Khat were less compared to their counterparts.


          Underweight among reproductive age group women in Ethiopia is still a major public health problem, particularly among rural dwellers. Underweight was significantly associated with different sociodemographic variables. Hence, context-based awareness creation programs need to be designed on the prevention methods of underweight in Ethiopia, giving especial emphasis to those residing in rural areas.

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          Do burdens of underweight and overweight coexist among lower socioeconomic groups in India?

          The coexistence of underweight and overweight in rapidly developing economies is well recognized. However, less is known about the socioeconomic patterning of underweight and overweight as economies move through the epidemiologic transition. The objective was to assess whether burdens of underweight and overweight coexist among lower socioeconomic groups in India. Repeated cross-sectional analyses were conducted in nationally representative samples of 76,514 and 80,054 women aged 15-49 y drawn from the 1998-1999 and 2005-2006 Indian National Family Health Survey, respectively. Body mass index (in kg/m(2)) was used to measure weight status. We also calculated a ratio of the number of underweight women ( 24.9). Indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) included wealth and education. Although the ratio of underweight to overweight women decreased from 3.3 in 1998-1999 to 2.2 in 2005-2006, there were still considerably more underweight women than overweight women. It was only in the top wealth quintile and in groups with higher education that there was a slight excess of overweight women as compared with underweight women. There was a strong positive relation between SES and body mass index at both time points and across urban and rural areas. A positive relation between SES and body mass index was also observed for men in 2005-2006. The distribution of underweight and overweight in India remains socially segregated. Despite rapid economic growth, India has yet to experience a situation in which underweight and overweight coexist in the low-SES groups.
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            Comparison of Stopping Rules in Forward "Stepwise" Regression

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              The food, fuel, and financial crises affect the urban and rural poor disproportionately: a review of the evidence.

              The vulnerability of the urban poor to the recent food and fuel price crisis has been widely acknowledged. The unfolding global financial crisis, which brings higher unemployment and underemployment, is likely to further intensify this vulnerability. This paper reviews the evidence concerning the disproportionate vulnerability of the urban compared with the rural poor to these types of shocks. It reviews some of the unique characteristics of urban life that could make the urban poor particularly susceptible to price and financial shocks and summarizes the evidence regarding the disproportionate vulnerability of the urban poor. The focus is on impacts on poverty, food insecurity, and malnutrition. The review shows that although the urban poor are clearly one of the population groups most affected by the current (and previous) crises, the rural poor, landless, and net buyers are in no better position to confront the crisis without significant suffering. The poorest of the poor are the ones who will be most affected, irrespective of the continent, country, or urban or rural area where they live. The magnitude and severity of their suffering depends on their ability to adapt and on the specific nature, extent, and duration of the coping strategies they adopt. A better understanding of how these coping strategies are used and staggered is critical to help design triggers for action that can prevent households from moving to more desperate measures. Using these early coping strategies as early warning indicators could help prevent dramatic losses in welfare.

                Author and article information

                J Environ Public Health
                J Environ Public Health
                Journal of Environmental and Public Health
                27 July 2020
                : 2020
                Department of Nursing, College of Health Sciences, Woldia University, P.O. Box 400, Woldia, Ethiopia
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Chunrong Jia

                Copyright © 2020 Ayelign Mengesha Kassie et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Public health


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