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      Induction of Urokinase Receptor Expression in Nephrotoxic Nephritis

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          Abstract

          The urokinase receptor (uPAR) is a multifunctional molecule involved in pericellular, fibrinolytic, and proteolytic activities, as well as in cell adhesion and chemotaxis and may play a role in the pathogenesis of tissue remodeling occurring during glomerulonephritis. We analyzed sequentially the expression of uPAR by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization in an accelerated model of nephrotoxic nephritis in rats. A strong induction of uPAR mRNA expression was observed in glomeruli as soon as 1 h after nephrotoxic serum injection. The intensity of glomerular uPAR mRNA and antigen expression increased and peaked at 24 h. At that time, numerous glomerular fibrin deposits, monocyte/marcrophage infiltration, and heavy proteinuria were observed. Fibrin deposition was detected at 6 h, peaked at 24 h, and progressively declined over the next 3 weeks, while uPAR antigen expression remained elevated until the end of the study (3 weeks). By double labeling, we showed that the expression of uPAR was mediated by both intrinsic glomerular cells and infiltrating macrophages. Severe podocytic lesions developed within 3 days after antiserum injection, and glomerulosclerosis rapidly progressed within 2–3 weeks. These results show that glomerular uPAR expression is induced in nephrotoxic nephritis and suggest that uPAR may promote local proteolysis and also tissue remodeling, leading to the late development of glomerulosclerosis.

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          Most cited references 6

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          A Role for Caveolin and the Urokinase Receptor in Integrin-mediated Adhesion and Signaling

          The assembly of signaling molecules surrounding the integrin family of adhesion receptors remains poorly understood. Recently, the membrane protein caveolin was found in complexes with β1 integrins. Caveolin binds cholesterol and several signaling molecules potentially linked to integrin function, e.g., Src family kinases, although caveolin has not been directly implicated in integrin-dependent adhesion. Here we report that depletion of caveolin by antisense methodology in kidney 293 cells disrupts the association of Src kinases with β1 integrins resulting in loss of focal adhesion sites, ligand-induced focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation, and adhesion. The nonintegrin urokinase receptor (uPAR) associates with and stabilizes β1 integrin/caveolin complexes. Depletion of caveolin in uPAR-expressing 293 cells also disrupts uPAR/integrin complexes and uPAR-dependent adhesion. Further, β1 integrin/caveolin complexes could be disassociated by uPAR-binding peptides in both uPAR-transfected 293 cells and human vascular smooth muscle cells. Disruption of complexes by peptides in intact smooth muscle cells blocks the association of Src family kinases with β1 integrins and markedly impairs their migration on fibronectin. We conclude that ligand-induced signaling necessary for normal β1 integrin function requires caveolin and is regulated by uPAR. Caveolin and uPAR may operate within adhesion sites to organize kinase-rich lipid domains in proximity to integrins, promoting efficient signal transduction.
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            Recycling of the urokinase receptor upon internalization of the uPA:serpin complexes.

            The GPI-anchored urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) does not internalize free urokinase (uPA) but readily internalizes and degrades uPA:serpin complexes in a process that requires the alpha2-macroglobulin receptor/low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (alpha2MR-LRP). This process is accompanied by the internalization of uPAR which renders it resistant to phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC). In this paper we show that during internalization of uPA:serpins at 37 degrees C, analysed by FACScan, immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy, an initial decrease of cell surface uPAR was observed, followed by its reappearance at later times. This effect was not due to redistribution of previously intracellular receptors, nor to the surface expression of newly synthesized uPAR. Recycling was directly demonstrated in cell surface-biotinylated, uPA:PAI-1-exposed cells in which biotinylated uPAR was first internalized and subsequently recycled back to the surface upon incubation at 37 degrees C. In fact, uPAR was resistant to PI-PLC after the 4 degrees C binding of uPA:PAI-1 to biotinylated cells, but upon incubation at 37 degrees C PI-PLC-sensitive biotinylated uPAR reappeared at the cell surface. Binding of uPA:PAI-1 by uPAR, while essential to initiate the whole process, was, however, dispensable at later stages as both internalization and recycling of uPAR could be observed also after dissociation of the bound ligand from the cell surface.
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              Urokinase-type plasminogen activator is effective in fibrin clearance in the absence of its receptor or tissue-type plasminogen activator.

              The availability of gene-targeted mice deficient in the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), urokinase receptor (uPAR), tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA), and plasminogen permits a critical, genetic-based analysis of the physiological and pathological roles of the two mammalian plasminogen activators. We report a comparative study of animals with individual and combined deficits in uPAR and tPA and show that these proteins are complementary fibrinolytic factors in mice. Sinusoidal fibrin deposits are found within the livers of nearly all adult mice examined with a dual deficiency in uPAR and tPA, whereas fibrin deposits are never found in livers collected from animals lacking uPAR and rarely detected in animals lacking tPA alone. This is the first demonstration that uPAR has a physiological role in fibrinolysis. However, uPAR-/-/tPA-/- mice do not develop the pervasive, multi-organ fibrin deposits, severe tissue damage, reduced fertility, and high morbidity and mortality observed in mice with a combined deficiency in tPA and the uPAR ligand, uPA. Furthermore, uPAR-/-/tPA-/- mice do not exhibit the profound impairment in wound repair seen in uPA-/-/tPA-/- mice when they are challenged with a full-thickness skin incision. These results indicate that plasminogen activation focused at the cell surface by uPAR is important in fibrin surveillance in the liver, but that uPA supplies sufficient fibrinolytic potential to clear fibrin deposits from most tissues and support wound healing without the benefit of either uPAR or tPA.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                EXN
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2001
                2001
                07 November 2001
                : 9
                : 6
                : 397-404
                Affiliations
                aINSERM U 489, bAssociation Claude-Bernard et cLaboratoire d’Anatomie Pathologique, Hôpital Tenon, Paris, France
                Article
                52638 Exp Nephrol 2001;9:397–404
                10.1159/000052638
                11701999
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, References: 49, Pages: 8
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/52638
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Urokinase receptor, Fibrinolysis, Fibrosis, Glomerulonephritis

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