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      Maternal folic acid supplementation with vitamin B12 deficiency during pregnancy and lactation affects the metabolic health of adult female offspring but is dependent on offspring diet

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          Abstract

          Epidemiologic studies have reported relationships between maternal high folate and/or low B12 status during pregnancy and greater adiposity and insulin resistance in children. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of maternal folic acid supplementation (10 mg/kg diet), with (50 μg/kg diet) and without B12, on adult female offspring adiposity and glucose homeostasis. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed 1 of 3 diets from weaning and throughout breeding, pregnancy, and lactation: control (2 mg/kg diet folic acid, 50 μg/kg diet B12), supplemental folic acid with no B12 (SFA-B12), or supplemental folic acid with adequate B12 (SFA+B12). Female offspring were weaned onto the control diet or a Western diet (45% energy fat, 2 mg/kg diet folic acid, 50 μg/kg diet B12) for 35 wk. After weaning, control diet-fed offspring with SFA-B12 dams had fasting hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, lower β cell mass, and greater islet hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox α and nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group H member 3 mRNA than did offspring from control dams. In Western diet-fed offspring, those with SFA-B12 dams had lower fasting blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations, and were smaller than control offspring. Our findings suggest that maternal folic acid supplementation with B12 deficiency during pregnancy/lactation programs the metabolic health of adult female offspring but is dependent on offspring diet.-Henderson, A. M., Tai, D. C., Aleliunas, R. E., Aljaadi, A. M., Glier, M. B., Xu, E. E., Miller, J. W., Verchere, C. B., Green, T. J., Devlin, A. M. Maternal folic acid supplementation with vitamin B12 deficiency during pregnancy and lactation affects the metabolic health of adult female offspring but is dependent on offspring diet.

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          Most cited references 40

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          DNA methylation, insulin resistance, and blood pressure in offspring determined by maternal periconceptional B vitamin and methionine status.

          A complex combination of adult health-related disorders can originate from developmental events that occur in utero. The periconceptional period may also be programmable. We report on the effects of restricting the supply of specific B vitamins (i.e., B(12) and folate) and methionine, within normal physiological ranges, from the periconceptional diet of mature female sheep. We hypothesized this would lead to epigenetic modifications to DNA methylation in the preovulatory oocyte and/or preimplantation embryo, with long-term health implications for offspring. DNA methylation is a key epigenetic contributor to maintenance of gene silencing that relies on a dietary supply of methyl groups. We observed no effects on pregnancy establishment or birth weight, but this modest early dietary intervention led to adult offspring that were both heavier and fatter, elicited altered immune responses to antigenic challenge, were insulin-resistant, and had elevated blood pressure-effects that were most obvious in males. The altered methylation status of 4% of 1,400 CpG islands examined by restriction landmark genome scanning in the fetal liver revealed compelling evidence of a widespread epigenetic mechanism associated with this nutritionally programmed effect. Intriguingly, more than half of the affected loci were specific to males. The data provide the first evidence that clinically relevant reductions in specific dietary inputs to the methionine/folate cycles during the periconceptional period can lead to widespread epigenetic alterations to DNA methylation in offspring, and modify adult health-related phenotypes.
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            Reduction in neural-tube defects after folic acid fortification in Canada.

            In 1998, folic acid fortification of a large variety of cereal products became mandatory in Canada, a country where the prevalence of neural-tube defects was historically higher in the eastern provinces than in the western provinces. We assessed changes in the prevalence of neural-tube defects in Canada before and after food fortification with folic acid was implemented. The study population included live births, stillbirths, and terminations of pregnancies because of fetal anomalies among women residing in seven Canadian provinces from 1993 to 2002. On the basis of published results of testing of red-cell folate levels, the study period was divided into prefortification, partial-fortification, and full-fortification periods. We evaluated the relationship between baseline rates of neural-tube defects in each province and the magnitude of the decrease after fortification was implemented. A total of 2446 subjects with neural-tube defects were recorded among 1.9 million births. The prevalence of neural-tube defects decreased from 1.58 per 1000 births before fortification to 0.86 per 1000 births during the full-fortification period, a 46% reduction (95% confidence interval, 40 to 51). The magnitude of the decrease was proportional to the prefortification baseline rate in each province, and geographical differences almost disappeared after fortification began. The observed reduction in rate was greater for spina bifida (a decrease of 53%) than for anencephaly and encephalocele (decreases of 38% and 31%, respectively). Food fortification with folic acid was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of neural-tube defects in Canada. The decrease was greatest in areas in which the baseline rate was high. Copyright 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society.
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              An improved method for isolation of mouse pancreatic islets.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                The FASEB Journal
                The FASEB Journal
                FASEB
                0892-6638
                1530-6860
                September 2018
                September 2018
                : 32
                : 9
                : 5039-5050
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada;
                [2 ]British Columbia Children’s Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada;
                [3 ]Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada;
                [4 ]Department of Food, Nutrition, and Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada;
                [5 ]Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
                [6 ]Department of Nutritional Sciences, Rutgers University, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA;
                [7 ]South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
                Article
                10.1096/fj.201701503RR
                29913560
                © 2018
                Product

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