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      Maternal folic acid supplementation with vitamin B12 deficiency during pregnancy and lactation affects the metabolic health of adult female offspring but is dependent on offspring diet

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          Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) Method.

           K Livak,  T Schmittgen (2001)
          The two most commonly used methods to analyze data from real-time, quantitative PCR experiments are absolute quantification and relative quantification. Absolute quantification determines the input copy number, usually by relating the PCR signal to a standard curve. Relative quantification relates the PCR signal of the target transcript in a treatment group to that of another sample such as an untreated control. The 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method is a convenient way to analyze the relative changes in gene expression from real-time quantitative PCR experiments. The purpose of this report is to present the derivation, assumptions, and applications of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method. In addition, we present the derivation and applications of two variations of the 2(-Delta Delta C(T)) method that may be useful in the analysis of real-time, quantitative PCR data. Copyright 2001 Elsevier Science (USA).
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            Analyzing real-time PCR data by the comparative CT method

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              Early developmental conditioning of later health and disease: physiology or pathophysiology?

              Extensive experimental animal studies and epidemiological observations have shown that environmental influences during early development affect the risk of later pathophysiological processes associated with chronic, especially noncommunicable, disease (NCD). This field is recognized as the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD). We discuss the extent to which DOHaD represents the result of the physiological processes of developmental plasticity, which may have potential adverse consequences in terms of NCD risk later, or whether it is the manifestation of pathophysiological processes acting in early life but only becoming apparent as disease later. We argue that the evidence suggests the former, through the operation of conditioning processes induced across the normal range of developmental environments, and we summarize current knowledge of the physiological processes involved. The adaptive pathway to later risk accords with current concepts in evolutionary developmental biology, especially those concerning parental effects. Outside the normal range, effects on development can result in nonadaptive processes, and we review their underlying mechanisms and consequences. New concepts concerning the underlying epigenetic and other mechanisms involved in both disruptive and nondisruptive pathways to disease are reviewed, including the evidence for transgenerational passage of risk from both maternal and paternal lines. These concepts have wider implications for understanding the causes and possible prevention of NCDs such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, for broader social policy and for the increasing attention paid in public health to the lifecourse approach to NCD prevention. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                The FASEB Journal
                The FASEB Journal
                FASEB
                0892-6638
                1530-6860
                September 2018
                September 2018
                : 32
                : 9
                : 5039-5050
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada;
                [2 ]British Columbia Children’s Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada;
                [3 ]Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada;
                [4 ]Department of Food, Nutrition, and Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada;
                [5 ]Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada
                [6 ]Department of Nutritional Sciences, Rutgers University, The State University of New Jersey, New Brunswick, New Jersey, USA;
                [7 ]South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute, Adelaide, South Australia, Australia
                Article
                10.1096/fj.201701503RR
                © 2018
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