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      Assessment of risk conferred by coding and regulatory variations of TMPRSS2 and CD26 in susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection in human


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          At present, more than 200 countries and territories are directly affected by the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. Incidence and case fatality rate are significantly higher among elderly individuals (age > 60 years), type 2 diabetes and hypertension patients. Cellular receptor ACE2, serine protease TMPRSS2 and exopeptidase CD26 (also known as DPP4) are the three membrane bound proteins potentially implicated in SARS-CoV-2 infection. We hypothesised that common variants from TMPRSS2 and CD26 may play critical role in infection susceptibility of predisposed population or group of individuals. Coding (missense) and regulatory variants from TMPRSS2 and CD26 were studied across 26 global populations. Two missense and five regulatory SNPs were identified to have differential allelic frequency. Significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) signature was observed in different populations. Modelled protein‒protein interaction (PPI) predicted strong molecular interaction between these two receptors and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (S1 domain). However, two missense SNPs, rs12329760 ( TMPRSS2) and rs1129599 ( CD26), were not found to be involved physically in the said interaction. Four regulatory variants (rs112657409, rs11910678, rs77675406 and rs713400) from TMPRSS2 were found to influence the expression of TMPRSS2 and pathologically relevant MX1. rs13015258 a 5′ UTR variant from CD26 have significant role in regulation of expression of key regulatory genes that could be involved in SARS-CoV-2 internalization. Overexpression of CD26 through epigenetic modification at rs13015258-C allele was found critical and could explain the higher SARS-CoV-2 infected fatality rate among type 2 diabetes.

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          The online version of this article (10.1007/s12041-020-01217-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China

          Summary Background A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. Methods All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. Findings By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0–58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0–13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα. Interpretation The 2019-nCoV infection caused clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. Funding Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission.
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            Risk Factors Associated With Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome and Death in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pneumonia in Wuhan, China

            Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging infectious disease that was first reported in Wuhan, China, and has subsequently spread worldwide. Risk factors for the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 pneumonia have not yet been well delineated.
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              Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission

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                Author and article information

                J Genet
                J. Genet
                Journal of Genetics
                Springer India (New Delhi )
                9 June 2020
                : 99
                : 1
                : 53
                [1 ]GRID grid.428366.d, ISNI 0000 0004 1773 9952, Department of Human Genetics and Molecular Medicine, School of Health Sciences, , Central University of Punjab, ; Bathinda, 151 001 India
                [2 ]GRID grid.428366.d, ISNI 0000 0004 1773 9952, Department of Biochemistry, School of Basic and Applied Sciences, , Central University of Punjab, ; Bathinda, 151 001 India
                Author notes

                Corresponding editor: M anoj P rasad

                Author information
                © Indian Academy of Sciences 2020

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

                : 13 April 2020
                : 10 May 2020
                : 11 May 2020
                Funded by: Science and Engineering Research Board (IN)
                Award ID: ECR/2016/001660
                Award ID: EEQ/2016/000350
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: University Grants Commission (IN)
                Award ID: F.30/2014-BSR
                Award ID: F.30/372/2017-BSR
                Award Recipient :
                Research Note
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                © Indian Academy of Sciences 2020

                coronavirus disease-19,severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2,dipeptidyl peptidase-4,transmembrane protease serine 2,spike protein,type-2 diabetes.


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