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      Postoperative analgesic effects of various quadratus lumborum block approaches following cesarean section: a randomized controlled trial

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Quadratus lumborum block (QLB) is shown to be effective on analgesia following cesarean section. This study aimed to compare the effects of three practical QLB approaches and classic epidural analgesia (EA) for cesarean section under spinal anesthesia.

          Patients and methods

          Parturients undergoing elective cesarean section were randomized as group 1 (QLB type 2), group 2 (QLB type 3), group 3 (QLB type 2+3) and group 4 (EA). The block was performed at the end of the operation, and the epidural group was given a single epidural bolus. All subjects were provided with intravenous patient-controlled analgesia under identical settings. In addition, the postoperative pain severity was assessed by the VAS, which together with the morphine consumption at specific time intervals, was recorded within 48 hrs after surgery. Data were collected from December 2017 to June 2018.

          Results

          A total of 94 parturients had completed the study. At almost all postoperative time points, the VAS scores at rest and with movement in QLB type 2+3 group were lower than those in QLB type 2 or 3 group. The mean additional morphine consumption in QLB type 2+3 group (2.7 mg) was lower than that in QLB type 2 or 3 group (6.1 mg and 5.7 mg, respectively) within 48 h after surgery ( P<0.001). Besides, the total morphine consumption in EA group (1.3 mg) was lower than that in any other QLB group ( P<0.001).

          Conclusions

          The analgesic effect of QLB is highly dependent on the injection position of local anesthetic. Besides, the ultrasound-guided QLB type 2+3 can provide superior analgesic effect following cesarean section to that of QLB type 2 or 3 block. However, it remains to be further validated about whether the combination of QLB type 2 and 3 is the best approach.

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          Most cited references 25

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          The thoracolumbar fascia: anatomy, function and clinical considerations.

          In this overview, new and existent material on the organization and composition of the thoracolumbar fascia (TLF) will be evaluated in respect to its anatomy, innervation biomechanics and clinical relevance. The integration of the passive connective tissues of the TLF and active muscular structures surrounding this structure are discussed, and the relevance of their mutual interactions in relation to low back and pelvic pain reviewed. The TLF is a girdling structure consisting of several aponeurotic and fascial layers that separates the paraspinal muscles from the muscles of the posterior abdominal wall. The superficial lamina of the posterior layer of the TLF (PLF) is dominated by the aponeuroses of the latissimus dorsi and the serratus posterior inferior. The deeper lamina of the PLF forms an encapsulating retinacular sheath around the paraspinal muscles. The middle layer of the TLF (MLF) appears to derive from an intermuscular septum that developmentally separates the epaxial from the hypaxial musculature. This septum forms during the fifth and sixth weeks of gestation. The paraspinal retinacular sheath (PRS) is in a key position to act as a 'hydraulic amplifier', assisting the paraspinal muscles in supporting the lumbosacral spine. This sheath forms a lumbar interfascial triangle (LIFT) with the MLF and PLF. Along the lateral border of the PRS, a raphe forms where the sheath meets the aponeurosis of the transversus abdominis. This lateral raphe is a thickened complex of dense connective tissue marked by the presence of the LIFT, and represents the junction of the hypaxial myofascial compartment (the abdominal muscles) with the paraspinal sheath of the epaxial muscles. The lateral raphe is in a position to distribute tension from the surrounding hypaxial and extremity muscles into the layers of the TLF. At the base of the lumbar spine all of the layers of the TLF fuse together into a thick composite that attaches firmly to the posterior superior iliac spine and the sacrotuberous ligament. This thoracolumbar composite (TLC) is in a position to assist in maintaining the integrity of the lower lumbar spine and the sacroiliac joint. The three-dimensional structure of the TLF and its caudally positioned composite will be analyzed in light of recent studies concerning the cellular organization of fascia, as well as its innervation. Finally, the concept of a TLC will be used to reassess biomechanical models of lumbopelvic stability, static posture and movement.
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            Quadratus lumborum block for postoperative pain after caesarean section: A randomised controlled trial.

            Effective postoperative analgesia after caesarean section is important because it enables early ambulation and facilitates breast-feeding. Several case reports have shown that local anaesthetic injection around the quadratus lumborum muscle is effective in providing pain relief after various abdominal operations and in patients with chronic pain. The quadratus lumborum block (QLB) is performed in close proximity to the surface and uses a fascial compartment path to extend the distribution of local anaesthesia into the posterior abdominal wall and paravertebral space. This central effect can be of vital importance when managing the visceral pain after caesarean section.
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              Studies on the spread of local anaesthetic solution in transversus abdominis plane blocks.

              The extent of analgesia provided by transversus abdominis plane blocks depends upon the site of injection and pattern of spread within the plane. There are currently a number of ultrasound-guided approaches in use, including an anterior oblique-subcostal approach, a mid-axillary approach and a more recently proposed posterior approach. We wished to determine whether the site of injection of local anaesthetic into the transversus abdominis plane affects the spread of the local anaesthetic within that plane, by studying the spread of a local anaesthetic and contrast solution in four groups of volunteers. The first group underwent the classical landmark-based transversus abdominis plane block whereby two different volumes of injectate were studied: 0.3 ml.kg(-1) vs 0.6 ml.kg(-1). The second group underwent transversus abdominis plane block using the anterior subcostal approach. The third group underwent transversus abdominis plane block using the mid-axillary approach. The fourth group underwent transversus abdominis plane block using the posterior approach, in which local anaesthetic was deposited close to the antero-lateral border of the quadratus lumborum. All volunteers subsequently underwent magnetic resonance imaging at 1, 2 and 4 h following each block to determine the spread of local anaesthetic over time. The studies demonstrated that the anterior subcostal and mid-axillary ultrasound approaches resulted in a predominantly anterior spread of the contrast solution within the transversus abdominis plane and relatively little posterior spread. There was no spread to the paravertebral space with the anterior subcostal approach. The mid-axillary transversus abdominis plane block gave faint contrast enhancement in the paravertebral space at T12-L2. In contrast, the posterior approaches, using both landmark and ultrasound identifications, resulted in predominantly posterior spread of contrast around the quadratus lumborum to the paravertebral space from T5 to L1 vertebral levels. We concluded that the pattern of spread of local anaesthetic differs depending on the site of injection into the transversus abdominis plane. This may have important implications for the extent of analgesia produced with each approach. © 2011 The Authors. Anaesthesia © 2011 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                JPR
                jpainres
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove
                1178-7090
                25 July 2019
                2019
                : 12
                : 2305-2312
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University , Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ] Department of Anesthesiology, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital , Tianjin, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Xue Zhou; Xia FengDepartment of Anesthesiology, First Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University , No. 58 Zhongshan 2nd Road, Guangzhou510080, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86 02 087 332 200 8273Fax +86 0 208 733 0709Email zhoux77@ 123456mail.sysu.edu.cn ; fengxia@ 123456mail.sysu.edu.cn
                Article
                202772
                10.2147/JPR.S202772
                6663075
                © 2019 Kang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 27, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Original Research

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                nerve block, cesarean section, postoperative pain

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