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Evaluation of the Facial Artery on Computed Tomographic Angiography Using 64-Slice Multidetector Computed Tomography : Implications for Facial Reconstruction in Plastic Surgery

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      Most cited references 16

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      Anatomic study of the blood supply of perioral region.

       O Bilge,  F Govsa,  Yelda Pinar (2005)
      The use of flaps to reconstruct lip defects requires detailed knowledge of the local vasculature. New flaps for surgery around the mouth can be devised if the surgeon knows the distribution of the perioral arterial branches. Examination of the anatomy of perioral branches of the facial artery (FA) confirmed the consistent presence of septal and alar branches in the upper lip and a labiomental branch in the lower lip. Mucosal flaps from the upper lip based on the deep septal branch or the alar branch of the FA can be used to restore lower lip defects. A composite flap from the lower lip supplied by the labiomental branch of the FA can be used to restore combined defects of the upper lip and nose or partial defects of the lower lip. We studied the vascular anatomy of the perioral region in 25 cadaver dissections. Fixation was by 10% formaldehyde solution. Red latex was injected into the common carotid arteries before dissection. In the 50 specimens, the primary supplying vessels were identified and the size and distribution of the vessels were investigated. The FA was symmetrical in 17 (68%) of 25 heads. It terminated as an angular facial vessel in 11 (22%), as a nasal facial vessel in 30 (60%), as an alar vessel in six (12%), and as a superior labial vessel in two (4%) facial halves. It terminated as a hypoplastic type of FA in one (2%) facial half. The average external diameter of the superior labial artery (SLA) was 1.6 mm (min-max: 0.6-2.8 mm) at its origin. The origin of the SLA was superior to the angle of the mouth in 34 of 47 specimens (72.3%), and at the angle of the mouth in 13 of 47 specimens (27.7%). In two of the remaining three specimens, the SLA was the continuation of the FA and the other was of the hypoplastic type. The SLA supplied the columellar branches in all specimens except for the hypoplastic type (49 specimens). Columellar branches were classified according to their number and their type. In five specimens (10%) the inferior labial artery (ILA) was not found. In the other specimens, the site of origin of the ILA varied between the lower margin of the mandible and the corner of the mouth. Its external diameter measured min-max: 0.5-1.5 mm. The ILA arose from the FA above the angle of mouth in 4 specimens (8%), inferior to the angle of mouth in 11 specimens (22%), and at angle of mouth in 30 specimens (60%). We observed that the labiomental arteries, which formed anastomoses between the FA, ILA, and submental artery, showed variations in their course in the labiomental region. We suggest that knowledge of the location of arteries with respect to easily identifiable landmarks will help to avoid complications at surgery.
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        An anatomical study of the facial artery.

        The anatomical variations encountered in the dissection of 50 facial arteries in 25 adult preserved cadavers are presented. The facial artery was symmetrical in 17 of 25 (68%) of the dissections. The facial artery terminated as an angular facial artery in 34 (68%), a lateral nasal vessel in 13 (26%), and a superior labial vessel in 2 (4%); in 1 (2%) the facial artery terminated at the alar base. A longer course was identified in 5 (10%) facial arteries. The use of nasolabial flap (skin, full-thickness, and oral mucosa) raised as an island flap based on the facial artery or one its branches is discussed.
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          A detailed observation of variations of the facial artery, with emphasis on the superior labial artery.

          The reconstruction of lip defects through the use of the Abbe flap and other lip flap procedures involves surgical manipulation of one of the major branches of the facial artery, specifically the superior labial artery (SLA). We examined 284 hemifaces derived from 142 formalin fixed cadavers. Observations regarding the distribution patterns of the facial artery were recognized and categorized into five Types, labeled "A" through "E". Type A (135, 47.5%): facial artery bifurcates into SLA and lateral nasal (the latter gives off inferior and superior alar and ends as angular); Type B (110, 38.7%): similar to Type A, except lateral nasal terminates as superior alar (angular artery is absent); Type C (24, 8.4%): facial artery terminates as SLA; Type D (11, 3.8%): angular artery arises directly from facial arterial trunk rather than as the termination of lateral nasal, with the facial artery ending as superior alar; Type E (4, 1.4%): facial artery terminates as a rudimentary twig without providing any significant branches. Furthermore, we were able to categorize variations within each Type. Sub-Type variations were examined in Types A through C (A: 1-7; B: 1-4; C: 1-3). Our aim was to equip both the anatomist and surgeon with a more thorough understanding of the vasculature of the face, as well as to enable plastic surgeons to have a more confident approach to reconstructive procedures in this region.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
            Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
            Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
            0032-1052
            2013
            March 2013
            : 131
            : 3
            : 526-535
            10.1097/PRS.0b013e31827c6f18
            © 2013

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