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Evaluation of the Facial Artery on Computed Tomographic Angiography Using 64-Slice Multidetector Computed Tomography : Implications for Facial Reconstruction in Plastic Surgery

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      Anatomic study of the blood supply of perioral region.

       O Bilge,  F Govsa,  Yelda Pinar (2005)
      The use of flaps to reconstruct lip defects requires detailed knowledge of the local vasculature. New flaps for surgery around the mouth can be devised if the surgeon knows the distribution of the perioral arterial branches. Examination of the anatomy of perioral branches of the facial artery (FA) confirmed the consistent presence of septal and alar branches in the upper lip and a labiomental branch in the lower lip. Mucosal flaps from the upper lip based on the deep septal branch or the alar branch of the FA can be used to restore lower lip defects. A composite flap from the lower lip supplied by the labiomental branch of the FA can be used to restore combined defects of the upper lip and nose or partial defects of the lower lip. We studied the vascular anatomy of the perioral region in 25 cadaver dissections. Fixation was by 10% formaldehyde solution. Red latex was injected into the common carotid arteries before dissection. In the 50 specimens, the primary supplying vessels were identified and the size and distribution of the vessels were investigated. The FA was symmetrical in 17 (68%) of 25 heads. It terminated as an angular facial vessel in 11 (22%), as a nasal facial vessel in 30 (60%), as an alar vessel in six (12%), and as a superior labial vessel in two (4%) facial halves. It terminated as a hypoplastic type of FA in one (2%) facial half. The average external diameter of the superior labial artery (SLA) was 1.6 mm (min-max: 0.6-2.8 mm) at its origin. The origin of the SLA was superior to the angle of the mouth in 34 of 47 specimens (72.3%), and at the angle of the mouth in 13 of 47 specimens (27.7%). In two of the remaining three specimens, the SLA was the continuation of the FA and the other was of the hypoplastic type. The SLA supplied the columellar branches in all specimens except for the hypoplastic type (49 specimens). Columellar branches were classified according to their number and their type. In five specimens (10%) the inferior labial artery (ILA) was not found. In the other specimens, the site of origin of the ILA varied between the lower margin of the mandible and the corner of the mouth. Its external diameter measured min-max: 0.5-1.5 mm. The ILA arose from the FA above the angle of mouth in 4 specimens (8%), inferior to the angle of mouth in 11 specimens (22%), and at angle of mouth in 30 specimens (60%). We observed that the labiomental arteries, which formed anastomoses between the FA, ILA, and submental artery, showed variations in their course in the labiomental region. We suggest that knowledge of the location of arteries with respect to easily identifiable landmarks will help to avoid complications at surgery.
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        CT angiography with three-dimensional techniques for the early diagnosis of intracranial aneurysms. Comparison with intra-arterial DSA and the surgical findings.

        Cerebral CT angiography (CTA) is an established method applied to both the detection and treatment planning of intracranial aneurysms. The aim of our study was to compare CTA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA) findings with the surgical results mainly in patients with acute SAH and to evaluate the clinical usefulness of CTA. During the last 2 years, 82 consecutive patients were admitted under clinical symptoms and signs suggestive of harboring an intracranial aneurysm. CT angiography performed immediately afterwards the plain CT, while DSA was performed within the first 48 h of admission. All aneurysms detected were confirmed during surgery or endovascular embolization. Repeat DSA was performed in all patients having both the initial CTA and the DSA 15 days after the onset of symptoms negative. CT angiograms and conventional angiographies were studied by a consensus of two radiologists for each technique, who performed aneurysm detection, morphological features characterization and evaluation of the technique. Surgical or/and endovascular treatment was performed in 45 patients and 53 aneurysms were confirmed. Using 3D-CT angiography, we detected 47 aneurysms in 42 patients. Conventional angiography depicted 43 aneurysms in 39 patients. The sensitivity of CTA for the detection of all aneurysms versus surgery was 88.7%, the specificity 100%, the positive predictive value (PPV) 100%, the negative predictive value (NPV) 80.7% and the accuracy 92.3%. Accordingly, the sensitivity of DSA was 87.8%, the specificity 98%, the PPV 97.7%, the NPV 89.1% and the accuracy 92.9%. Considering aneurysms > or =3 mm, CTA showed a sensitivity ranging from 93.3 to 100%, equal to that of DSA. Cerebral CT angiography has an equal sensitivity to DSA in the detection of intracranial aneurysms >3 mm. It has also 100% detection rate in AcoA and MCA bifurcation aneurysms, while some locations, like posterior communicating artery aneurysms, remain problematic. The delineating features of each aneurysm are better depicted with CTA due to 3D visualization. The use of digital subtraction angiography as a diagnostic tool can be limited in equivocal cases.
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          An anatomical study of the facial artery.

          The anatomical variations encountered in the dissection of 50 facial arteries in 25 adult preserved cadavers are presented. The facial artery was symmetrical in 17 of 25 (68%) of the dissections. The facial artery terminated as an angular facial artery in 34 (68%), a lateral nasal vessel in 13 (26%), and a superior labial vessel in 2 (4%); in 1 (2%) the facial artery terminated at the alar base. A longer course was identified in 5 (10%) facial arteries. The use of nasolabial flap (skin, full-thickness, and oral mucosa) raised as an island flap based on the facial artery or one its branches is discussed.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
            Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
            Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
            0032-1052
            2013
            March 2013
            : 131
            : 3
            : 526-535
            10.1097/PRS.0b013e31827c6f18
            © 2013

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