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      A new species of leaf-toed gecko (Phyllodactylidae, Phyllodactylus) from María Cleofas Island, Nayarit, Mexico

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          We describe a new species of leaf-toed gecko of the genus Phyllodactylus from María Cleofas Island, the smallest island of Tres Marías Archipelago, Nayarit, México. Genomic, phylogenomic, and morphological evidence support that the new species presents a unique combination of diagnostic characters. Morphologically, the new species has a high number of tubercles, head to tail (mean 47), longitudinal ventral scales (mean 61), and third labial–snout scales (mean 26). Gene flow tests revealed the genetic isolation of insular populations from mainland counterparts. In addition, we confirmed the non-monophyly of P. homolepidurus and P. nolascoensis , and we show that the taxon P. t. saxatilis is a complex; therefore, we propose taxonomic changes within the saxatilis clade. The discovery of this new insular endemic species highlights the urgency of continued exploration of the biological diversity of island faunas of Mexico.

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          Most cited references 44

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          adegenet 1.3-1: new tools for the analysis of genome-wide SNP data.

          While the R software is becoming a standard for the analysis of genetic data, classical population genetics tools are being challenged by the increasing availability of genomic sequences. Dedicated tools are needed for harnessing the large amount of information generated by next-generation sequencing technologies. We introduce new tools implemented in the adegenet 1.3-1 package for handling and analyzing genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data. Using a bit-level coding scheme for SNP data and parallelized computation, adegenet enables the analysis of large genome-wide SNPs datasets using standard personal computers. adegenet 1.3-1 is available from CRAN: http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/adegenet/. Information and support including a dedicated forum of discussion can be found on the adegenet website: http://adegenet.r-forge.r-project.org/. adegenet is released with a manual and four tutorials totalling over 300 pages of documentation, and distributed under the GNU General Public Licence (≥2). t.jombart@imperial.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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            Lizards as pollinators and seed dispersers: an island phenomenon

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              Species concepts and species delimitation.

              The issue of species delimitation has long been confused with that of species conceptualization, leading to a half century of controversy concerning both the definition of the species category and methods for inferring the boundaries and numbers of species. Alternative species concepts agree in treating existence as a separately evolving metapopulation lineage as the primary defining property of the species category, but they disagree in adopting different properties acquired by lineages during the course of divergence (e.g., intrinsic reproductive isolation, diagnosability, monophyly) as secondary defining properties (secondary species criteria). A unified species concept can be achieved by treating existence as a separately evolving metapopulation lineage as the only necessary property of species and the former secondary species criteria as different lines of evidence (operational criteria) relevant to assessing lineage separation. This unified concept of species has several consequences for species delimitation, including the following: First, the issues of species conceptualization and species delimitation are clearly separated; the former secondary species criteria are no longer considered relevant to species conceptualization but only to species delimitation. Second, all of the properties formerly treated as secondary species criteria are relevant to species delimitation to the extent that they provide evidence of lineage separation. Third, the presence of any one of the properties (if appropriately interpreted) is evidence for the existence of a species, though more properties and thus more lines of evidence are associated with a higher degree of corroboration. Fourth, and perhaps most significantly, a unified species concept shifts emphasis away from the traditional species criteria, encouraging biologists to develop new methods of species delimitation that are not tied to those properties.

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                15 March 2021
                : 1024
                : 117-136
                [1 ] Posgrado en Ciencias Biológicas, Unidad de Posgrado, Edificio D, primer piso, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad Universitaria 3000, Coyoacán, Ciudad de México, México
                [2 ] Museo de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior de CU, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510, Ciudad de México, México
                [3 ] Centro Universitario de la Costa, Universidad de Guadalajara, Av. Universidad 203, 48280, Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco, México
                [4 ] Laboratorio de Ecología del Comportamiento, Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste, S.C., Av. Instituto Politécnico Nacional 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita Sur, Apdo. Postal 128; La Paz, BCS 23096, México
                [5 ] Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Ciudad de la Cultura " Amado Nervo" s/n, 63155, Tepic, Nayarit, México
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Armando H. Escobedo-Galván ( elchorvis@ 123456gmail.com )

                Academic editor: A. Bauer

                Tonatiuh Ramírez-Reyes, Ilse K. Barraza-Soltero, Jose Rafael Nolasco-Luna, Oscar Flores Villela, Armando H. Escobedo-Galván

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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