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      PRECOCIDADE DE PARTO NA ESTAÇÃO DE PARIÇÃO SOBRE A EFICIÊNCIA PRODUTIVA DE VACAS PRIMÍPARAS AOS 24 MESES DE IDADE Translated title: PRECOCITY OF CALVING SEASON IN THE PRODUCTIVE EFFICIENCY OF PRIMIPAROUS COWS AT 24 MONTHS OF AGE

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          Abstract

          Resumo Objetivou-se verificar o efeito de dois períodos de parto, na estação de parição (precoces: setembro; e tardios: outubro), sobre a eficiência de 54 vacas Red Angus primíparas aos 24 meses de idade. As vacas foram mantidas em pastagem natural e cultivadas de Lotus corniculatus e Lolium multiflorum nos períodos pré e pós-parto, respectivamente. Utilizou-se inseminação artificial em tempo fixo, com dois protocolos, em intervalo de 30 dias. Realizaram-se diagnósticos de gestação 30 dias após cada protocolo. Bezerros de vacas paridas precocemente ganharam mais peso durante o aleitamento, sendo mais pesados ao desmame, quando comparados aos de vacas tardias, perfazendo maiores ganhos do conjunto vaca-bezerro durante a lactação (0,721±0,030 e 0,699±0,032 kg). O desempenho reprodutivo foi superior paras as vacas paridas precocemente nas duas sincronizações e no índice de prenhez total (86,2 e 52%). Vacas precoces na parição obtiveram maiores índices de produção de bezerros (161,5±3,2 e 92,5±3,5 kg), produção de bezerros/kg de vaca ao desmame (40,9±0,97 e 23,7±1,04 kg) e eficiência produtiva ao parto (34,3±1,25 e 20,8±1,35 kg). Vacas paridas precocemente são mais eficientes na produção de kg de bezerros/kg de vaca ao parto e ao desmame e, associando-se kg produzidos e prenhez subsequente, apresentam maior índice de produção de bezerros.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract The aim was to evaluate the effects of two calving periods, during the calving season (early: September; and late: October), in the efficiency of 54 Red Angus primiparous cows at 24 months of age. Over the pre-parturition and parturition periods, the cows were kept in natural and cultivated pastures of Lotus corniculatus and Lolium multiflorum, respectively. Fixed-time artificial insemination was used, with two protocols in a interval of 30-day. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed 30 days after each protocol. Calves from early calving cows presented larger weight daily gain, and were heavier at weaning when compared to later calving cows, resulting in higher cow-calf gains during the lactation (0.721±0.030 e 0.699±0.032 kg). The reproductive performance was higher for the early calving cows in both synchronizations, and in the total pregnancy rate (86.2 and 52%). Early calving cows had a higher calf production rate (161.5±3.2 e 92.5±3.5 kg), calf/kg of cow at weaning (40.9±0.97 e 23.7±1.04 kg), and productive efficiency in the calving (34.3±1.25 e 20.8±1.35 kg). Early calving cows are more efficient in production of calves kg/cows kg in the calving and in the weaning, and when associated the kg produced and the subsequent pregnancy, presented a higher calf production rate.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Physiological mechanisms controlling anestrus and infertility in postpartum beef cattle.

          Postpartum infertility is caused by four factors: general infertility, lack of uterine involution, short estrous cycles and anestrus. The general infertility component is common to any estrous cycle and reduces potential fertility by 20 to 30%. Incomplete uterine involution prevents fertilization during the first 20 d after calving but is not related to anestrus. Short estrous cycles prevent fertility during the first 40 d after calving by causing the cow to return to estrus before pregnancy recognition occurs. Anestrus is the major component of postpartum infertility and is affected by several minor factors: season, breed, parity, dystocia, presence of a bull, uterine palpation and carryover effects from the previous pregnancy as well as two major factors: suckling and nutrition. These major factors have direct effects on anestrus but also interact with one or more other factors to control postpartum anestrus. Physiological mechanisms associated with anestrus involve blockage of the GnRH "pulse generator" in the hypothalamus, but other pathways also must be involved because bypassing the pulse generator is not an effective treatment for all cows. The primary cause of anestrus probably is different for different stages of anestrus. The mediating mechanisms for anestrus are not involved with prolactin, oxytocin, the adrenal or direct neural input from the mammary gland but are at least partially involved with blood glucose and the endogenous opioid peptide system. Management options to decrease the impact of anestrus and infertility include: 1) restrict breeding season to less than or equal to 45 d; 2) manage nutrition so body condition score is 5 to 7 before calving; 3) minimize effects of dystocia and stimulate estrous activity with a sterile bull and estrous synchronization; and 4) judicious use of complete, partial or short-term weaning.
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            Effects of dietary energy on control of luteinizing hormone secretion in cattle and sheep.

             K Schillo (1992)
            Prolonged restriction of dietary energy delays onset of puberty, disrupts cyclicity in sexually mature animals, and lengthens the postpartum anestrous period in domestic ruminants. One important mechanism by which energy restriction impairs reproductive activity seems to be suppression of the increase in LH pulse frequency that is necessary for growth of ovarian follicles to the preovulatory stage. Under-nutrition apparently inhibits pulsatile secretion of LH by reducing LHRH secretion by the hypothalamus. The ability of an animal to sustain a high-frequency mode of pulsatile LH release is related to its metabolic status. Mechanisms linking metabolic status to LHRH secretion have not been fully characterized. Changes in body fat have been associated with changes in reproductive activity, but it is unlikely that body fat per se regulates LHRH secretion. It is possible that pulsatile LHRH release is regulated by specific metabolites and(or) metabolic hormones that reflect nutritional status. Alternatively, availability of oxidizable metabolic fuels, such as glucose and nonesterified fatty acids, may influence activity of neurons that control LHRH release. Our understanding of how the central nervous system transduces information about nutritional status into neuroendocrine signals that control reproduction in cattle and sheep is limited by a lack of information concerning the nature of neurons controlling LHRH release in these species.
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              Body condition and suckling as factor influencing the duration of postpartum anestrus in cattle: a review

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                cab
                Ciência Animal Brasileira
                Ciênc. anim. bras.
                Universidade Federal de Goiás (Goiânia, GO, Brazil )
                1518-2797
                1809-6891
                March 2018
                : 19
                : 0
                Affiliations
                Pelotas Rio Grande do Sul orgnameUniversidade Federal de Pelotas Brazil
                Rio Grande do Sul orgnameUniversidade Regional Integrada do Alto Uruguai e das Missões Brazil
                Article
                S1809-68912018000100201
                10.1590/1809-6891v19e-46667

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 29, Pages: 0
                Product
                Product Information: SciELO Brazil
                Categories
                Zootecnia

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