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      Effects of a theory of planned behavior-based intervention on breastfeeding behaviors after cesarean section: A randomized controlled trial

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          Abstract

          Objectives

          To examine the efficacy of an intervention based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in improving breastfeeding behavior among women with cesarean sections (C-sections).

          Methods

          This research was a randomized controlled trial. Women with planned elective C-sections were recruited to participate in a randomized controlled trial between June and September 2020. One hundred thirty-two women were divided randomly into the intervention ( n = 66) and control group ( n = 66) by systematic random sampling. In the intervention group, an intervention project was implemented after the C-section to establish positive breastfeeding attitudes, cultivate supportive subjective norms, enhance perceived behavioral control, and strengthen breastfeeding intention to change behaviors. Those in the control group received routine pre-and post-delivery care. Exclusive breastfeeding rate and breast problem were collected at 5 days, 2 weeks, and 1 month after C-section. The modified Breastfeeding Attrition Prediction Tool (BAPT) on the first day in the hospital, two weeks, and one month after C-section and Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) 24 h postoperatively were used to compare the intervention effect between the two groups.

          Results

          After the intervention, the intervention group had significantly higher exclusive breastfeeding rates than the control group at five days (86.4% vs. 60.6%), two weeks (77.3% vs. 57.6%), and one month (74.2% vs. 50.0%) after the C-section. Besides, the intervention group was less likely to have sore nipples at five days (6.1% vs. 18.2% in the control group, P < 0.05) and two weeks (9.1% vs. 12.1% in the control group, P < 0.05). After two weeks of intervention, attitude scores (90.64 ± 8.31 vs. 87.20 ± 8.15, P < 0.05), subjective norm scores (88.07 ± 24.65 vs. 79.42 ± 19.47, P < 0.05)and behavior control scores in the intervention group were significantly higher than those in the control group. After one month of intervention, attitude scores (90.34 ± 10.35 vs. 84.22 ± 10.51, P < 0.05) and behavior control scores (43.13 ± 5.02 vs. 39.15 ± 4.69, P < 0.05)in the intervention group were significantly higher than those in the control group, which resulted in the higher breastfeeding intention in the intervention group.

          Conclusion

          This study indicated that the TPB-based interventions effectively improved women’s breastfeeding behaviors after C-sections.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Breastfeeding in the 21st century: epidemiology, mechanisms, and lifelong effect.

          The importance of breastfeeding in low-income and middle-income countries is well recognised, but less consensus exists about its importance in high-income countries. In low-income and middle-income countries, only 37% of children younger than 6 months of age are exclusively breastfed. With few exceptions, breastfeeding duration is shorter in high-income countries than in those that are resource-poor. Our meta-analyses indicate protection against child infections and malocclusion, increases in intelligence, and probable reductions in overweight and diabetes. We did not find associations with allergic disorders such as asthma or with blood pressure or cholesterol, and we noted an increase in tooth decay with longer periods of breastfeeding. For nursing women, breastfeeding gave protection against breast cancer and it improved birth spacing, and it might also protect against ovarian cancer and type 2 diabetes. The scaling up of breastfeeding to a near universal level could prevent 823,000 annual deaths in children younger than 5 years and 20,000 annual deaths from breast cancer. Recent epidemiological and biological findings from during the past decade expand on the known benefits of breastfeeding for women and children, whether they are rich or poor.
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            Efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behaviour: A meta-analytic review

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              Global epidemiology of use of and disparities in caesarean sections

              In this Series paper, we describe the frequency of, trends in, determinants of, and inequalities in caesarean section (CS) use, globally, regionally, and in selected countries. On the basis of data from 169 countries that include 98·4% of the world's births, we estimate that 29·7 million (21·1%, 95% uncertainty interval 19·9-22·4) births occurred through CS in 2015, which was almost double the number of births by this method in 2000 (16·0 million [12·1%, 10·9-13·3] births). CS use in 2015 was up to ten times more frequent in the Latin America and Caribbean region, where it was used in 44·3% (41·3-47·4) of births, than in the west and central Africa region, where it was used in 4·1% (3·6-4·6) of births. The global and regional increases in CS use were driven both by an increasing proportion of births occurring in health facilities (accounting for 66·5% of the global increase) and increases in CS use within health facilities (33·5%), with considerable variation between regions. Based on the most recent data available for each country, 15% of births in 106 (63%) of 169 countries were by CS, whereas 47 (28%) countries showed CS use in less than 10% of births. National CS use varied from 0·6% in South Sudan to 58·1% in the Dominican Republic. Within-country disparities in CS use were also very large: CS use was almost five times more frequent in births in the richest versus the poorest quintiles in low-income and middle-income countries; markedly high CS use was observed among low obstetric risk births, especially among more educated women in, for example, Brazil and China; and CS use was 1·6 times more frequent in private facilities than in public facilities.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Int J Nurs Sci
                Int J Nurs Sci
                International Journal of Nursing Sciences
                Chinese Nursing Association
                2096-6296
                2352-0132
                24 March 2021
                10 April 2021
                24 March 2021
                : 8
                : 2
                : 152-160
                Affiliations
                [a ]Qingdao Women and Children’s Hospital, Qingdao, China
                [b ]College of Nursing at East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA
                [c ]School of Nursing, Qingdao University, Qingdao, China
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. No. 6 Tongfu road, Qingdao, Shandong, 266034, China. liufurong2010@ 123456126.com
                Article
                S2352-0132(21)00037-5
                10.1016/j.ijnss.2021.03.012
                8105542
                © 2021 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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