A Lerner 1 , 2 , 3 , E Solter 4 , 5 , E Rachi 4 , 6 , 5 , A Adler 4 , 6 , 5 , H Rechnitzer 7 , 8 , D Miron 7 , 8 , L Krupnick 7 , 8 , S Sela 9 , 8 , E Aga 9 , 8 , Y Ziv 9 , 8 , A Peretz 10 , 8 , K Labay 10 , 8 , G Rahav 10 , 8 , Y Geffen 11 , 12 , K Hussein 11 , 12 , O Eluk 11 , 12 , Y Carmeli 4 , 5 , M J Schwaber 4 , 5
Since 2013, four hospitals in northern Israel have been providing care for Syrian nationals, primarily those wounded in the ongoing civil war. We analyzed carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) isolates obtained from these patients. Isolate identification was performed using the VITEK 2 system. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for the presence of bla KPC, bla NDM, and bla OXA-48. Susceptibility testing and genotyping were performed on selected isolates. During the study period, 595 Syrian patients were hospitalized, most of them young men. Thirty-two confirmed CPE isolates were grown from cultures taken from 30 patients. All but five isolates were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. Nineteen isolates produced NDM and 13 produced OXA-48. Among a further 29 isolates tested, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) showed that ST278 and ST38 were the major sequence types among the NDM-producing K. pneumoniae and OXA-48-producing E. coli isolates, respectively. Most were resistant to all three carbapenems in use in Israel and to gentamicin, but susceptible to colistin and fosfomycin. The source for bacterial acquisition could not be determined; however, some patients admitted to different medical centers were found to carry the same sequence type. CPE containing bla NDM and bla OXA-48 were prevalent among Syrian wounded hospitalized patients in northern Israel. The finding of the same sequence type among patients at different medical centers implies a common, prehospital source for these patients. These findings have implications for public health throughout the region.