The concentration of ionic calcium (Ca<sup>2+</sup> in the smooth muscular cells of the resistance vessels is a determining factor of their contraction. It depends on the influx of Ca<sup>2+</sup> to the interior of the cells through the calcium channels in the sarcolemma. The effect of a specific Ca<sup>2+</sup>-channel blocking agent – nifedipine – on arterial hypertension in a group of 18 patients with chronic renal hypertension is reported in this study. The combination of nifedipine and propranolol in the control of hypertension in 6 of these patients in a long-term follow-up was also studied. It was concluded: (1) Ca<sup>2+</sup> blockade had a rapid and powerful antihypertensive effect in all patients; (2) the antihypertensive effect was higher with high initial blood pressure levels; this fact was especially evident and appeared particularly useful in hypertensive emergencies; (3) in some patients, the action of nifedipine was dose-dependent; (4) nifedipine had a short-lived action; (5) the combination nifedipine-propranolol was efficient in the long-term control of hypertension.