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      Metformin: a review of its potential indications

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          Abstract

          Metformin is the most commonly prescribed drug for type 2 diabetes mellitus. In recent years, in addition to glucose lowering, several studies have presented evidence suggesting some potential role for metformin, such as antitumor effect, antiaging effect, cardiovascular protective effect, neuroprotective effect or an optional treatment for polycystic ovary syndrome. This paper will critically review the role of metformin to provide reference for doctors and researchers.

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          Most cited references 80

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          Metformin, independent of AMPK, inhibits mTORC1 in a rag GTPase-dependent manner.

          Dysfunctional mTORC1 signaling is associated with a number of human pathologies owing to its central role in controlling cell growth, proliferation, and metabolism. Regulation of mTORC1 is achieved by the integration of multiple inputs, including those of mitogens, nutrients, and energy. It is thought that agents that increase the cellular AMP/ATP ratio, such as the antidiabetic biguanides metformin and phenformin, inhibit mTORC1 through AMPK activation of TSC1/2-dependent or -independent mechanisms. Unexpectedly, we found that biguanides inhibit mTORC1 signaling, not only in the absence of TSC1/2 but also in the absence of AMPK. Consistent with these observations, in two distinct preclinical models of cancer and diabetes, metformin acts to suppress mTORC1 signaling in an AMPK-independent manner. We found that the ability of biguanides to inhibit mTORC1 activation and signaling is, instead, dependent on the Rag GTPases.
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            Metformin and pathologic complete responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in diabetic patients with breast cancer.

            Population studies have suggested that metformin use in diabetic patients decreases cancer incidence and mortality. Metformin inhibits the growth of cancer cells in vitro and tumors in vivo. However, there is little clinical data to support this. Our purpose was to determine whether metformin use was associated with a change in pathologic complete response (pCR) rates in diabetic patients with breast cancer receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We identified 2,529 patients who received neoadjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer between 1990 and 2007. Patients were compared by groups: 68 diabetic patients taking metformin, 87 diabetic patients not taking metformin, and 2,374 nondiabetic patients. pCR rates were compared between the three groups using chi(2) tests of independence and compared pair- wise using a binomial test of proportions. Factors predictive of pCR were assessed using a multivariate logistic regression model. The rate of pCR was 24% in the metformin group, 8.0% in the nonmetformin group, and 16% in the nondiabetic group (P = .02). Pairwise comparisons between the metformin and nonmetformin groups (P = .007) and the nonmetformin and nondiabetic groups (P = .04) were significant. Comparison of the pCR rates between the metformin and nondiabetic groups trended toward but did not meet significance (P = .10). Metformin use was independently predictive of pCR (odds ratio, 2.95; P = .04) after adjustment for diabetes, body mass index, age, stage, grade, receptor status, and neoadjuvant taxane use. Diabetic patients with breast cancer receiving metformin and neoadjuvant chemotherapy have a higher pCR rate than do diabetics not receiving metformin. Additional studies to evaluate the potential of metformin as an antitumor agent are warranted.
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              Impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

              BACKGROUND Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition in reproductive-aged women associated with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and the metabolic syndrome. METHODS A literature search was conducted (MEDLINE, CINAHL, EMBASE, clinical trial registries and hand-searching) identifying studies reporting prevalence or incidence of IGT, DM2 or metabolic syndrome in women with and without PCOS. Data were presented as odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] with fixed- and random-effects meta-analysis by Mantel-Haenszel methods. Quality testing was based on Newcastle-Ottawa Scaling and The Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias assessment tool. Literature searching, data abstraction and quality appraisal were performed by two investigators. RESULTS A total of 2192 studies were reviewed and 35 were selected for final analysis. Women with PCOS had increased prevalence of IGT (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.63, 3.77; BMI-matched studies OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.44, 4.47), DM2 (OR 4.43, 95% CI 4.06, 4.82; BMI-matched studies OR 4.00, 95% CI 1.97, 8.10) and metabolic syndrome (OR 2.88, 95% CI 2.40, 3.45; BMI-matched studies OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.36, 3.56). One study assessed IGT/DM2 incidence and reported no significant differences in DM2 incidence (OR 2.07, 95% CI 0.68, 6.30). One study assessed conversion from normal glucose tolerance to IGT/DM2 (OR 2.4, 95% CI 0.7, 8.0). No studies reported metabolic syndrome incidence. CONCLUSIONS Women with PCOS had an elevated prevalence of IGT, DM2 and metabolic syndrome in both BMI and non-BMI-matched studies. Few studies have determined IGT/DM2 or metabolic syndrome incidence in women with and without PCOS and further research is required.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2017
                22 August 2017
                : 11
                : 2421-2429
                Affiliations
                [1 ]The Comprehensive Cancer Center and Shanghai Key Laboratory for Pancreatic Diseases, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Institute of Translational Medicine, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Qian Huang, The Comprehensive Cancer Center and Shanghai Key Laboratory for Pancreatic Diseases, Shanghai General Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, No 650, Xin Song Jiang Road, Shanghai 201620, People’s Republic of China, Tel +86 21 3779 8906, Email qhuang@ 123456sjtu.edu.cn
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                dddt-11-2421
                10.2147/DDDT.S141675
                5574599
                © 2017 Wang et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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