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      Calciphylaxis: Emerging Concepts in Prevention, Diagnosis, and Treatment : Calciphylaxis

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      Seminars in Dialysis

      Wiley

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          Strong association between malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis in chronic renal failure.

          Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and malnutrition are widely recognized as leading causes of the increased morbidity and mortality observed in uremic patients. C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute-phase protein, is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in nonrenal patient populations. In chronic renal failure (CRF), the prevalence of an acute-phase response has been associated with an increased mortality. One hundred and nine predialysis patients (age 52 +/- 1 years) with terminal CRF (glomerular filtration rate 7 +/- 1 ml/min) were studied. By using noninvasive B-mode ultrasonography, the cross-sectional carotid intima-media area was calculated, and the presence or absence of carotid plaques was determined. Nutritional status was assessed by subjective global assessment (SGA), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), serum albumin, serum creatinine, serum urea, and 24-hour urine urea excretion. The presence of an inflammatory reaction was assessed by CRP, fibrinogen (N = 46), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha; N = 87). Lipid parameters, including Lp(a) and apo(a)-isoforms, as well as markers of oxidative stress (autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein and vitamin E), were also determined. Compared with healthy controls, CRF patients had an increased mean carotid intima-media area (18.3 +/- 0.6 vs. 13.2 +/- 0.7 mm2, P or = 10 mg/liter). Malnourished patients had higher CRP levels (23 +/- 3 vs. 13 +/- 2 mg/liter, P < 0.01), elevated calculated intima-media area (20.2 +/- 0.8 vs. 16.9 +/- 0.7 mm2, P < 0.01) and a higher prevalence of carotid plaques (90 vs. 60%, P < 0.0001) compared with well-nourished patients. During stepwise multivariate analysis adjusting for age and gender, vitamin E (P < 0.05) and CRP (P < 0.05) remained associated with an increased intima-media area. The presence of carotid plaques was significantly associated with age (P < 0.001), log oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL; P < 0.01), and small apo(a) isoform size (P < 0.05) in a multivariate logistic regression model. These results indicate that the rapidly developing atherosclerosis in advanced CRF appears to be caused by a synergism of different mechanisms, such as malnutrition, inflammation, oxidative stress, and genetic components. Apart from classic risk factors, low vitamin E levels and elevated CRP levels are associated with an increased intima-media area, whereas small molecular weight apo(a) isoforms and increased levels of oxLDL are associated with the presence of carotid plaques.
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            Phosphate regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell calcification.

            Vascular calcification is a common finding in atherosclerosis and a serious problem in diabetic and uremic patients. Because of the correlation of hyperphosphatemia and vascular calcification, the ability of extracellular inorganic phosphate levels to regulate human aortic smooth muscle cell (HSMC) culture mineralization in vitro was examined. HSMCs cultured in media containing normal physiological levels of inorganic phosphate (1.4 mmol/L) did not mineralize. In contrast, HSMCs cultured in media containing phosphate levels comparable to those seen in hyperphosphatemic individuals (>1.4 mmol/L) showed dose-dependent increases in mineral deposition. Mechanistic studies revealed that elevated phosphate treatment of HSMCs also enhanced the expression of the osteoblastic differentiation markers osteocalcin and Cbfa-1. The effects of elevated phosphate on HSMCs were mediated by a sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter (NPC), as indicated by the ability of the specific NPC inhibitor phosphonoformic acid, to dose dependently inhibit phosphate-induced calcium deposition as well as osteocalcin and Cbfa-1 gene expression. With the use of polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot analyses, the NPC in HSMCs was identified as Pit-1 (Glvr-1), a member of the novel type III NPCs. These data suggest that elevated phosphate may directly stimulate HSMCs to undergo phenotypic changes that predispose to calcification and offer a novel explanation of the phenomenon of vascular calcification under hyperphosphatemic conditions. The full text of this article is available at http://www.circresaha.org.
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              Arterial stiffening and vascular calcifications in end-stage renal disease.

              Epidemiological studies have identified aortic stiffness as an independent predictor of cardiovascular mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. In these patients, aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) was associated with mediacalcosis, but the influence of arterial calcifications on the viscoelastic properties of large arteries was not well characterized. The purpose of the present study was to analyse the influence of arterial calcifications on arterial stiffness in stable haemodialysed patients. We studied 120 stable ESRD patients on haemodialysis. All patients underwent B-mode ultrasonography of common carotid artery (CCA), aorta, and femoral arteries to determine CCA distensibility, the elastic incremental modulus (Einc), and the presence of vascular calcifications. All patients underwent measurement of aortic PWV and echocardiogram. The presence of calcifications was analysed semiquantitatively as a score (0 to 4) according to the number of arterial sites with calcifications. Our observations indicate that arterial and aortic stiffness is significantly influenced by the presence and extent of arterial calcifications. The extent of arterial calcifications is in part responsible for increased left ventricular afterload, and is inversely correlated with stroke volume. The influence of calcifications is independent of the role of ageing and blood pressure. Arterial calcifications density increases with age, duration of haemodialysis, the fibrinogen level, and the prescribed dose of calcium-based phosphate binders. The results of this study showed that the presence of vascular calcifications in ESRD patients was associated with increased stiffness of large capacity, elastic-type arteries, like the aorta and CCA. The extent of arterial calcifications increased with the use of calcium-based phosphate-binders.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Seminars in Dialysis
                Wiley
                08940959
                June 2002
                September 23 2008
                : 15
                : 3
                : 172-186
                Article
                10.1046/j.1525-139X.2002.00052.x
                © 2008

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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