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      Difficulties in employment perceived by individuals with ASD in Poland

      research-article
      ,
      Advances in Autism
      Emerald Publishing
      Employment, Patient perspective, Autism spectrum disorder

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Individuals with an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnosis often desire to be useful to society and may have the ability to work. Unfortunately, in Poland as in other countries, most remain unemployed. The purpose of this paper is to determine the factors that make gaining and retaining employment difficult for people with autism from their perspective.

          Design/methodology/approach

          This paper presents a qualitative research synthesis, that explored experiences of 15 individuals with autism regarding the process of seeking and maintaining employment. In-depth interviews were conducted with each study participant, and four discussion panels were held with small groups.

          Findings

          The difficulties described by the study participants included lack of detailed information, anxiety, high stress levels and overcommitment. Some of them also reported that they were unable to find out the reasons for misunderstanding or dissatisfaction on the part of their employers.

          Social implications

          The paper emphasizes the need to increase public awareness and reliable knowledge about autism spectrum disorders.

          Originality/value

          The paper draws conclusions regarding common difficulties from the perspective of individuals with autism. It shows how features associated with autism can be related to specific problems at work or during the process of looking for it. It also indicates changes that should be made in the employers' approach to help people with autism gain and retain employment.

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          Most cited references27

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          Is Open Access

          Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder Among Children Aged 8 Years — Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 11 Sites, United States, 2014

          Problem/Condition Autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Period Covered 2014. Description of System The Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network is an active surveillance system that provides estimates of the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) among children aged 8 years whose parents or guardians reside within 11 ADDM sites in the United States (Arizona, Arkansas, Colorado, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, Missouri, New Jersey, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Wisconsin). ADDM surveillance is conducted in two phases. The first phase involves review and abstraction of comprehensive evaluations that were completed by professional service providers in the community. Staff completing record review and abstraction receive extensive training and supervision and are evaluated according to strict reliability standards to certify effective initial training, identify ongoing training needs, and ensure adherence to the prescribed methodology. Record review and abstraction occurs in a variety of data sources ranging from general pediatric health clinics to specialized programs serving children with developmental disabilities. In addition, most of the ADDM sites also review records for children who have received special education services in public schools. In the second phase of the study, all abstracted information is reviewed systematically by experienced clinicians to determine ASD case status. A child is considered to meet the surveillance case definition for ASD if he or she displays behaviors, as described on one or more comprehensive evaluations completed by community-based professional providers, consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) diagnostic criteria for autistic disorder; pervasive developmental disorder–not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS, including atypical autism); or Asperger disorder. This report provides updated ASD prevalence estimates for children aged 8 years during the 2014 surveillance year, on the basis of DSM-IV-TR criteria, and describes characteristics of the population of children with ASD. In 2013, the American Psychiatric Association published the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), which made considerable changes to ASD diagnostic criteria. The change in ASD diagnostic criteria might influence ADDM ASD prevalence estimates; therefore, most (85%) of the records used to determine prevalence estimates based on DSM-IV-TR criteria underwent additional review under a newly operationalized surveillance case definition for ASD consistent with the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. Children meeting this new surveillance case definition could qualify on the basis of one or both of the following criteria, as documented in abstracted comprehensive evaluations: 1) behaviors consistent with the DSM-5 diagnostic features; and/or 2) an ASD diagnosis, whether based on DSM-IV-TR or DSM-5 diagnostic criteria. Stratified comparisons of the number of children meeting either of these two case definitions also are reported. Results For 2014, the overall prevalence of ASD among the 11 ADDM sites was 16.8 per 1,000 (one in 59) children aged 8 years. Overall ASD prevalence estimates varied among sites, from 13.1–29.3 per 1,000 children aged 8 years. ASD prevalence estimates also varied by sex and race/ethnicity. Males were four times more likely than females to be identified with ASD. Prevalence estimates were higher for non-Hispanic white (henceforth, white) children compared with non-Hispanic black (henceforth, black) children, and both groups were more likely to be identified with ASD compared with Hispanic children. Among the nine sites with sufficient data on intellectual ability, 31% of children with ASD were classified in the range of intellectual disability (intelligence quotient [IQ] 85). The distribution of intellectual ability varied by sex and race/ethnicity. Although mention of developmental concerns by age 36 months was documented for 85% of children with ASD, only 42% had a comprehensive evaluation on record by age 36 months. The median age of earliest known ASD diagnosis was 52 months and did not differ significantly by sex or race/ethnicity. For the targeted comparison of DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 results, the number and characteristics of children meeting the newly operationalized DSM-5 case definition for ASD were similar to those meeting the DSM-IV-TR case definition, with DSM-IV-TR case counts exceeding DSM-5 counts by less than 5% and approximately 86% overlap between the two case definitions (kappa = 0.85). Interpretation Findings from the ADDM Network, on the basis of 2014 data reported from 11 sites, provide updated population-based estimates of the prevalence of ASD among children aged 8 years in multiple communities in the United States. The overall ASD prevalence estimate of 16.8 per 1,000 children aged 8 years in 2014 is higher than previously reported estimates from the ADDM Network. Because the ADDM sites do not provide a representative sample of the entire United States, the combined prevalence estimates presented in this report cannot be generalized to all children aged 8 years in the United States. Consistent with reports from previous ADDM surveillance years, findings from 2014 were marked by variation in ASD prevalence when stratified by geographic area, sex, and level of intellectual ability. Differences in prevalence estimates between black and white children have diminished in most sites, but remained notable for Hispanic children. For 2014, results from application of the DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 case definitions were similar, overall and when stratified by sex, race/ethnicity, DSM-IV-TR diagnostic subtype, or level of intellectual ability. Public Health Action Beginning with surveillance year 2016, the DSM-5 case definition will serve as the basis for ADDM estimates of ASD prevalence in future surveillance reports. Although the DSM-IV-TR case definition will eventually be phased out, it will be applied in a limited geographic area to offer additional data for comparison. Future analyses will examine trends in the continued use of DSM-IV-TR diagnoses, such as autistic disorder, PDD-NOS, and Asperger disorder in health and education records, documentation of symptoms consistent with DSM-5 terminology, and how these trends might influence estimates of ASD prevalence over time. The latest findings from the ADDM Network provide evidence that the prevalence of ASD is higher than previously reported estimates and continues to vary among certain racial/ethnic groups and communities. With prevalence of ASD ranging from 13.1 to 29.3 per 1,000 children aged 8 years in different communities throughout the United States, the need for behavioral, educational, residential, and occupational services remains high, as does the need for increased research on both genetic and nongenetic risk factors for ASD.
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            Postsecondary education and employment among youth with an autism spectrum disorder.

            We examined the prevalence and correlates of postsecondary education and employment among youth with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
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              Prevalence and Trends of Developmental Disabilities among Children in the United States: 2009–2017

              To study the national prevalence of ten developmental disabilities in US children aged 3–17 years and explore changes over time by associated demographic and socioeconomic characteristics using the 2009–2017 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Data come from the NHIS, a nationally-representative survey of the civilian noninstitutionalized population. Parents reported physician or other health care professional diagnoses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); autism spectrum disorder (ASD); blindness; cerebral palsy; moderate to profound hearing loss; learning disability (LD); intellectual disability (ID); seizures; stuttering or stammering; and other developmental delays. Weighted percentages for each of the selected developmental disabilities and any developmental disability were calculated between 2009–2017 and stratified by selected demographic/socioeconomic characteristics. From 2009–2011 to 2015–2017, there were overall significant increases in the prevalence of any developmental disability (16.2% to 17.8%, p<.001), ADHD (8.5% to 9.5%, p <.01), ASD (1.1% to 2.5%, p <.001), and ID (0.9% to 1.2%, p <.05), but a significant decrease for any other developmental delay (4.7% to 4.1% , p <.05). The prevalence of any developmental disability increased among boys, children ages 12–17, non-Hispanic white and Hispanic children, children with private insurance only, and children with birthweights ≥2,500 grams. An increase in prevalence of any developmental disability was also seen for children living in urban areas and with less educated mothers. The prevalence of developmental disability among US children aged 3–17 years increased between 2009–2017. Changes by demographic and socioeconomic subgroups may be related to improvements in awareness and access to health care. From the 2009–2017 NHIS, there was a 9.5% increase in the prevalence of developmental disabilities among children aged 3–17.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                AIA
                10.1108/AIA
                Advances in Autism
                AIA
                Emerald Publishing
                2056-3868
                2056-3868
                06 May 2021
                12 May 2021
                : 7
                Issue : 1 Issue title : Employment Issue title : Employment
                : 49-59
                Affiliations
                [1]Department of Psychology, Maria Grzegorzewska Academy of Special Education, Warszawa, Poland
                Author notes
                Agnieszka Siedler can be contacted at: siedleragnieszka@gmail.com
                Article
                655965 AIA-11-2019-0042.pdf AIA-11-2019-0042
                10.1108/AIA-11-2019-0042
                99671d18-7a60-4311-b52e-e5dc30032a97
                © Emerald Publishing Limited
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 4, Equations: 0, References: 28, Pages: 1, Words: 5931
                Product
                Self URI (journal-page): http://www.emeraldgrouppublishing.com/aia.htm
                Categories
                research-article, Research paper
                cat-HSC, Health & social care
                , Learning & intellectual disabilities
                Custom metadata
                M
                Web-ready article package
                Yes
                Yes
                JOURNAL
                included

                Health & Social care
                Employment,Autism spectrum disorder,Patient perspective
                Health & Social care
                Employment, Autism spectrum disorder, Patient perspective

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