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      Effect of DLK1 and RTL1 but Not MEG3 or MEG8 on Muscle Gene Expression in Callipyge Lambs

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          Callipyge sheep exhibit extreme postnatal muscle hypertrophy in the loin and hindquarters as a result of a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the imprinted DLK1-DIO3 domain on ovine chromosome 18. The callipyge SNP up-regulates the expression of surrounding transcripts when inherited in cis without altering their allele-specific imprinting status. The callipyge phenotype exhibits polar overdominant inheritance since only paternal heterozygous animals have muscle hypertrophy. Two studies were conducted profiling gene expression in lamb muscles to determine the down-stream effects of over-expression of paternal allele-specific DLK1 and RTL1 as well as maternal allele-specific MEG3, RTL1AS and MEG8, using Affymetrix bovine expression arrays. A total of 375 transcripts were differentially expressed in callipyge muscle and 25 transcripts were subsequently validated by quantitative PCR. The muscle-specific expression patterns of most genes were similar to DLK1 and included genes that are transcriptional repressors or affect feedback mechanisms in β-adrenergic and growth factor signaling pathways. One gene, phosphodiesterase 7A had an expression pattern similar to RTL1 expression indicating a biological activity for RTL1 in muscle. Only transcripts that localize to the DLK1-DIO3 domain were affected by inheritance of a maternal callipyge allele. Callipyge sheep are a unique model to study over expression of both paternal allele-specific genes and maternal allele-specific non-coding RNA with an accessible and nonlethal phenotype. This study has identified a number of genes that are regulated by DLK1 and RTL1 expression and exert control on postnatal skeletal muscle growth. The genes identified in this model are primary candidates for naturally regulating postnatal muscle growth in all meat animal species, and may serve as targets to ameliorate muscle atrophy conditions including myopathic diseases and age-related sarcopenia.

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          Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is defined as an increase in muscle mass, which in the adult animal comes as a result of an increase in the size, as opposed to the number, of pre-existing skeletal muscle fibers. The protein growth factor insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been demonstrated to be sufficient to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Over the past few years, signaling pathways which are activated by IGF-1, and which are responsible for regulating protein synthesis pathways, have been defined. More recently, it has been show that IGF-1 can also block the transcriptional upregulation of key mediators of skeletal muscle atrophy, the ubiquitin-ligases MuRF1 and MAFbx (also called Atrogin-1). Further, it has been demonstrated recently that activation of the NF-kappaB transcription pathway, activated by cachectic factors such as TNFalpha, is sufficient to induce skeletal muscle atrophy, and this atrophy occurs in part via NF-kappaB-mediated upregulation of MuRF1. Further work has demonstrated a trigger for MAFbx expression upon treatment with TNFalpha--the p38 MAPK pathway. This review will focus on the recent progress in the understanding of molecular signalling, which governs skeletal muscle atrophy and hypertrophy, and the known instances of cross-regulation between the two systems.
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              The tumor suppressor PTEN regulates cell migration, growth, and survival by removing the 3'-phosphate of phosphoinositides. Exposure of purified PTEN or of cells to H(2)O(2) resulted in inactivation of PTEN in a time- and H(2)O(2) concentration-dependent manner. Analysis of various cysteine mutants, including mass spectrometry of tryptic peptides, indicated that the essential Cys(124) residue in the active site of PTEN specifically forms a disulfide with Cys(71) during oxidation by H(2)O(2). The reduction of H(2)O(2)-oxidized PTEN in cells appears to be mediated predominantly by thioredoxin. Thus, thioredoxin was more efficient than glutaredoxin, glutathione, or a 14-kDa thioredoxin-like protein with regard to the reduction of oxidized PTEN in vitro. Thioredoxin co-immunoprecipitated with PTEN from cell lysates; and incubation of cells with 2,4-dinitro-1-chlorobenzene (an inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase) delayed the reduction of oxidized PTEN, whereas incubation with buthioninesulfoximine (an inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis) did not. These results suggest that the reversible inactivation of PTEN by H(2)O(2) might be important for the accumulation of 3'-phosphorylated phosphoinositides and that the uncontrolled generation of H(2)O(2) associated with certain pathological conditions might contribute to cell proliferation by inhibiting PTEN function.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                9 October 2009
                : 4
                : 10
                [1 ]Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States of America
                [2 ]Department of Statistics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States of America
                [3 ]Animal Sciences Division, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, United States of America
                [4 ]School of Veterinary Science, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, Australia
                [5 ]CSIRO Livestock Industries, St. Lucia, Queensland, Australia
                [6 ]Department of Animal, Dairy and Veterinary Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, Utah, United States of America
                East Carolina University, United States of America
                Author notes

                Conceived and designed the experiments: RLT MKN NC CAB. Performed the experiments: JNFW TMT JDW TV. Analyzed the data: JNFW GRO BAC. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: RLT NC. Wrote the paper: JNFW CAB.

                Fleming-Waddell et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
                Page count
                Pages: 15
                Research Article
                Genetics and Genomics/Animal Genetics
                Genetics and Genomics/Functional Genomics
                Genetics and Genomics/Gene Expression



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