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      Recent advances of exosomes in immune-mediated eye diseases


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          Exosomes, nanosized extracellular vesicles of 30–150 nm, are shed by almost all cell types. Bearing proteins, lipids, RNAs, and DNAs, exosomes have emerged as vital biological mediators in cell-to-cell communication, affecting a plethora of physiological and pathological processes. Particularly, mounting evidence indicates that immunologically active exosomes can regulate both innate and adaptive immune responses. Herein, we review recent advances in the research of exosomes in several immune-mediated eye diseases, including Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) dry eye, corneal allograft rejection, autoimmune uveitis, and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Additionally, we discuss the potential of exosomes as novel biomarkers and drug delivery vesicles for the diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases.

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          Most cited references72

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          Electron microscopic evidence for externalization of the transferrin receptor in vesicular form in sheep reticulocytes

          Using ferritin-labeled protein A and colloidal gold-labeled anti-rabbit IgG, the fate of the sheep transferrin receptor has been followed microscopically during reticulocyte maturation in vitro. After a few minutes of incubation at 37 degrees C, the receptor is found on the cell surface or in simple vesicles of 100-200 nm, in which the receptor appears to line the limiting membrane of the vesicles. With time (60 min or longer), large multivesicular elements (MVEs) appear whose diameter may reach 1-1.5 micron. Inside these large MVEs are round bodies of approximately 50-nm diam that bear the receptor at their external surfaces. The limiting membrane of the large MVEs is relatively free from receptor. When the large MVEs fuse with the plasma membrane, their contents, the 50-nm bodies, are released into the medium. The 50-nm bodies appear to arise by budding from the limiting membrane of the intracellular vesicles. Removal of surface receptor with pronase does not prevent exocytosis of internalized receptor. It is proposed that the exocytosis of the approximately 50-nm bodies represents the mechanism by which the transferrin receptor is shed during reticulocyte maturation.
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            Using exosomes, naturally-equipped nanocarriers, for drug delivery.

            Exosomes offer distinct advantages that uniquely position them as highly effective drug carriers. Comprised of cellular membranes with multiple adhesive proteins on their surface, exosomes are known to specialize in cell-cell communications and provide an exclusive approach for the delivery of various therapeutic agents to target cells. In addition, exosomes can be amended through their parental cells to express a targeting moiety on their surface, or supplemented with desired biological activity. Development and validation of exosome-based drug delivery systems are the focus of this review. Different techniques of exosome isolation, characterization, drug loading, and applications in experimental disease models and clinic are discussed. Exosome-based drug formulations may be applied to a wide variety of disorders such as cancer, various infectious, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative disorders. Overall, exosomes combine benefits of both synthetic nanocarriers and cell-mediated drug delivery systems while avoiding their limitations.
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              Bovine milk-derived exosomes for drug delivery.

              Exosomes are biological nanovesicles that are involved in cell-cell communication via the functionally-active cargo (such as miRNA, mRNA, DNA and proteins). Because of their nanosize, exosomes are explored as nanodevices for the development of new therapeutic applications. However, bulk, safe and cost-effective production of exosomes is not available. Here, we show that bovine milk can serve as a scalable source of exosomes that can act as a carrier for chemotherapeutic/chemopreventive agents. Drug-loaded exosomes showed significantly higher efficacy compared to free drug in cell culture studies and against lung tumor xenografts in vivo. Moreover, tumor targeting ligands such as folate increased cancer-cell targeting of the exosomes resulting in enhanced tumor reduction. Milk exosomes exhibited cross-species tolerance with no adverse immune and inflammatory response. Thus, we show the versatility of milk exosomes with respect to the cargo it can carry and ability to achieve tumor targetability. This is the first report to identify a biocompatible and cost-effective means of exosomes to enhance oral bioavailability, improve efficacy and safety of drugs.

                Author and article information

                86-22-86428862 , nianhong@126.com
                86-22-86428862 , rwei@tmu.edu.cn
                Stem Cell Res Ther
                Stem Cell Res Ther
                Stem Cell Research & Therapy
                BioMed Central (London )
                30 August 2019
                30 August 2019
                : 10
                : 278
                ISNI 0000 0004 1798 646X, GRID grid.412729.b, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Retinal Functions and Diseases, Eye Institute and School of Optometry, , Tianjin Medical University Eye Hospital, ; No.251 Fukang Road, Nankai District, Tianjin, 300384 People’s Republic of China
                Author information
                © The Author(s). 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Award ID: 81770901, 81570834
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100013151, Scientific Research Foundation for Returned Scholars of Ministry of Education;
                Award ID: No. 48
                Funded by: Tianjin Clinical Key Discipline Project
                Award ID: TJLCZDXKT003
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                © The Author(s) 2019

                Molecular medicine
                exosomes,sjögren’s syndrome,corneal allograft rejection,autoimmune uveitis,age-related macular degeneration,biomarkers,drug delivery


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