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      Caracterização dos taninos condensados das espécies maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglazovii), flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera), feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa, L) e jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus) Translated title: Characterization of condensed tannin of the species maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglaziovii), flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera), feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa) and jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus)


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          Caracterizaram-se os taninos condensados (TC) e determinaram-se a composição bromatológica e a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS) das espécies maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglazovii Pax & Hoffman), flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera), feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa, L) e jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus (L.) Willd). As concentrações em tanino solúvel, tanino ligado ao resíduo e tanino total (TT) das espécies foram determinadas pelo método butanol-HCL e a adstringência pelo método de difusão radial. Para a DIVMS, foi utilizado método de dois estágios. Foram observadas diferenças entre as espécies (P<0,01) quanto à concentração e adstringência dos taninos. As maiores concentrações foram encontradas na jureminha, 2,4% TT e 13,7-3 de adstringência. Não foi detectado tanino na flor-de-seda. O teor em PB foi acima de 16% em todas as espécies estudadas, e o FDA e lignina abaixo de 39 e 15%, respectivamente. A DIVMS foi baixa na jureminha, 43%, e alta na flor-de-seda, 80%. A correlação entre a DIVMS e a concentração em taninos condensados foi baixa (r=0,097).

          Translated abstract

          Condensed tannins (CT) of the species maniçoba (Manihot pseudoglaziovii), flor-de-seda (Calotropis procera), feijão-bravo (Capparis flexuosa) and jureminha (Desmanthus virgatus) were characterized and the chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of those species were determined. Concentration of soluble tannin (ST), bound tannin (BT) and total tannin (TT) of the plants was determined using butanol-HCL method; astringency was determined, using radial diffusion method, and the IVDMD was determined using two-stages method. Concentration and astringency of condensed tannins varied between species (P<0.01). Jureminha was the species that presented the highest value (2.4% TT and 13.7-3 astringency). No tannins were detected in flor-de-seda. Crude protein was higher than 16% in all studied species, and the ADF and lignin values were lower than 39 and 15%, respectively. The IVDMD was low in jureminha (43%) and high in flor-de-seda (80%). The correlation between IVDMD and TT was low (r²=0.097).

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          Most cited references26

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          Generalized Approach for Incorporating Normalization Conditions in Design Sensitivity Analysis of Eigenvectors

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            Nutritional toxicology of tannins and related polyphenols in forage legumes.

            R. Reed (1995)
            Proanthocyanidins (PA) (condensed tannins) and hydrolyzable tannins (HT) are the two major classes of tannins. Proanthocyanidins are flavonoid polymers. Hydrolyzable tannins are polymers of gallic or ellagic acid esterified to a core molecule, commonly glucose or a polyphenol such as catechin. Proanthocyanidins are the most common type of tannin found in forage legumes. Problems in the analysis of tannins are that sample processing and drying decrease extraction and reactivity, suitable standards are unavailable, and quantitative analytical methods are poorly correlated with enzyme inhibition, protein precipitation, and nutritional effects. Hydrolyzable tannins are potentially toxic to ruminants. Pyrogallol, a hepatotoxin and nephrotoxin, is a product of HT degradation by ruminal microbes. Proanthocyanidins are considered to be non-toxic because they are not absorbed, but they are associated with lesions of the gut mucosa. Research on tannins in forage legumes has determined their effects on protein digestion and metabolism but more research on tannin structure in relation to digestion of specific proteins is needed. The widely accepted explanation for positive effects of PA on protein digestion and metabolism is that PA-protein complexes escape ruminal degradation and the protein is available in the lower tract. This proposed mechanism may be incorrect because PA also complex carbohydrates, endogenous proteins, and microbial products and the degradability of PA-protein complexes by ruminal microbes has not been adequately studied. Several alternative hypotheses (to escape protein) that explain the effect of PA on protein digestion and metabolism in ruminants are also consistent with experimental results on forage legumes. These include increased microbial protein synthesis, increased use of endogenous nitrogen in the rumen, and increased secretion of salivary glycoproteins. Research on manipulating the content and type of PA in forage legumes is justified because they are associated with non-bloating legumes, lower soluble non-protein nitrogen in silage, and improved efficiency of protein utilization. Research on the biosynthesis, molecular genetics, and cell biology of PA in forage legumes needs to be integrated with research on toxicology and nutrition.
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                Author and article information

                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
                Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec.
                Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Escola de Veterinária (Belo Horizonte )
                August 2007
                : 59
                : 4
                : 1038-1044
                [1 ] Universidade Federal da Paraíba Brazil
                [2 ] UFAL
                [3 ] Universidade Federal da Paraíba Brazil



                SciELO Brazil

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0102-0935&lng=en

                General veterinary medicine
                ruminante,astringency,anti-nutritional factor,proantocyanidin,ruminant,Nordeste,forrageiras nativas,Brazilian Northeastern,native forages,adstringência,fator antinutricional,pro-antrocianidinas


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